Sunday, March 31, 2019

A Plan To Sell Products

A jut To Sell ProductsMerchandising, advertising, promotion, a plan to dish give away products, sales to the meet gets of customers, media planning be each well to be kn receive as merchandising. While these activities whitethorn be regarded as part of commercialiseing, none of them is marting itself.It is remarkable that in that location ar two conditions that must be met in the lead merchandising is possible. Firstly, on that point must be a person or comp all that desires to sell a product or a service. Secondly, there is a need for potential buyers of the product or service. nonematter which comes first, but both must exist. If both factors exist, market is the bring or series of activities that the ilkly purchaser of the product or service with the product or service. If there is a no problem in exchange your product or service for profit, the selling has been a success. If the problem is non to make profits, the marketing has failed. It is important to re cognize, then that marketing is the sum of all activities mendd to pitch buyer and seller profitably together.1.2 Introduction to MauritiusMauritius was first explored by the Portuguese in the 16th century and subsequently settled by the Dutch who named it in honor of Prince Maurits van NASSAU in the 17th century. untenanted until the 17th century, the island was ruled first by the Dutch and then the french after the Dutch had abanthroughd it. The British took control during the Napoleonic Wars and Mauritius became self-sustaining from the UK in 1968. Mauritius is a parliamentary republic and is member of the randomnessern Afri laughingstock organic evolution Comm social unity, the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa the African juncture and the Commonwealth of Nations.The important languages spoken in Mauritius atomic number 18 Mauritanian Creole, french and English. English is the entirely appointed language but the lingua franca is Creole and the newspaper s and television programs are usually in french. Ethnically, the majority of the population is Indian and there are also many people of African alliance on the island and there are also European and Chinese minorities. It is the solitary(prenominal) African nation where the largest religion is Hinduism although Christianity and Islam also drive home significant populations. The fogey has been extinct since the mid-to-late 17th century1.3 Introduction to MaradivaMaradiva Villas Resort Spa, Mauritius, (member of Leading refined Hotels of the World) is an exclusive assimilaten of luxury spread over 27 scenic acres with 750 m of pristine beach. It overlooks the serene, blue waters of Tamarin verbalize at Wolmar. The 65 Suite Villas (from 163 to 345 m) draw inspiration from the charm local architecture, each with a private pool adjoining a tranquil living-dining area, with the benefit of full butler service to ensure that each guest need is met. The villas are wonderfully s pacious and include a large daylight bathroom with an indoor and an outdoor shower, a walk-in wardrobe, flat-screen television, DVD, music system, internet connectivity, espresso machine, personal bar and in-room safe. The blossoming park of Maradiva enhances already an appealing feature of the holiday resort into a lush tropical tend with sculptured landscaping.The resort offers to its guests a choice between 65 bonny villas with a private pool of their own. The following is a table word picture the variant categories of retinue that the resort has to offer with their comeTYPE OF VILLAS figure OF VILLASLuxury Villas46Luxury Beachfront Villas11Luxury Suites Villas6presidential Villas2Chapter 2 little Environment and Macro Environment2.1 Micro EnvironmentThe micro environment includes internal factors close to the company that bring a direct impact on the organizations st measuregy. These factors include2.1.1 ConsumersThe maximum bites of consumers balking in the hotel are from France, then Europe, USA, Middle East, India and dissimilar countries. All the cliental from these places are of time out class. in that respect are incompatible types of clientele like corpo mark, Leisure, commercial enterprise domestic clientele. Maradiva basically caters types of clientele they areCorporate clients since the hotel is well committed it has a huge corporate clientLeisure Clients since Maradiva is marketed as a leisure property it caters to many clients from around the global.Domestic clients since the hotel is successional it offers a special rate of 14,000 MAU throughout the year for Mauritian guests. In this room it caters to the niche fragment of the domestic clients(Source From the hotel monthly Occupancy report)2.1.2 SuppliersIt is directly conjugated to the companys overall customer value de blendry system. The suppliers turn in resources to Maradiva to produce these services. If it faces any problems from suppliers it will directly affect th e marketing strategies of the hotel.The local travels agents that Maradiva deals with are-MauritoursThe bloodless Sand ToursSummer TimesElite VoyageConnectionsExpression holidays2.1.3 CompetitorsMaradiva provides different strategies packages to acquire customer value satisfaction. These strategies help them to compete with their competitors. The hotel by apply these strategies must gain strategic advantage by positing their offerings strongly against competitors offerings. animateROOMSMaradiva Villas and spa, Mauritius65Four seasons, Mauritius145Sugar Beach resorts, Mauritius258Shanti Ananda Maurice61Sofitel imperial resort spa191Total7202.1.4 MediaThe modes of advertisements that are used there are printed media and the hoardings. In the printed media local newspapers were used and the local newspapers were Le Mauricien and lexpress.2.2 Macro Environment2.2.1Political2.2.2 EconomicalGDP (2009 est., official exchange rate)$9.156 billionReal growth rate (2009 est.)2.1%Per cap ita income (2009 est., purchasing powerfulness parity)$12,400Avg. inflation rate (2009 est.)3.4%Agriculture(4.5% of GDP) Productssugar, sugar derivatives, tea, tobacco, vegetables, fruits, flowers, cattle and fishing.Manufacturing, including export treat zone(19.4% of GDP) Typeslabor-intensive goods for export, including textiles and clothing, watches and clocks, jewelry, ocular goods, toys and games, and cut flowers.Financial services(10.9% of GDP)Tourism sector(8.7% of GDP) Main countries of originFrance, including near French island Reunion, South Africa, and west European countries.(Source http// sociableThe forebears of the various ethnic assemblages composing Mauritian society arrived as settlers, slaves, indenture laborers, and immigrants. Ethnicity, religion, and language have been important factors in shaping the way Mauritians relate to each other in the social spheres.The Mauritian Constitution makes no mention of an official language and its one million citizens speak Mauritian Creole, a French-based Creole, English or French. It is only in the Parliament that the official language is English but any member of the National gather can placid address the chair in French.PopulationIsland of Mauritius only 1,288.2 (In Thousands 2009)Population growth rate0.7%Birth rate16.66 births/1,000 population (2000 est.) expiry rate6.83 deaths/1,000 population (2000 est.)Sex ratioTotal population 98 male(s)/100 femaleInfant mortality rate17.73 deaths/1,000 live births (2000 est.) demeanor expectancy at birthMale 66.98 long timefemale 75.04 years (2000 est.)Ethnic groupsIndian 68%, Creole 27%, Chinese 3%, French 2%ReligionsHinduism 52%, Christianity 28.3% (Roman Catholicism 26%, Protestant 2.3%), Islam 16.6%, other 3.1%LiteracyTotal population 82.9%male 87.1%female 78.8% (1995 est.)(Source http//,http// .4 technicalIt is usually assumed in the literature that the successful accumulation of technology in a given developing country depends only on approach path to new information, stable macroeconomic conditions, market-driven signals and the supply of human capital. Mauritius is an outlier in the African scene in foothold of its trade, industrial and macroeconomic regime. From the 1970s, Mauritius followed a sundry(a) trade policy of import substitution coupled with incentives for exports through the exportation Processing Zone. There have been three phases of adjustment since the mid-1980s, each with a different pace and coverage.Industries also plays an important role in an economy, the main industries in Mauritius are textiles, chemicals, food processing, tourism, metal products, non-electrical machinery and transport equipment. The food processing industry in Mauritius is largely composed of sugar milling. The Sugar jaw industry arrived in Mauritius in the year of 1639. The re are so many sugar-cane fields in Mauritius. There is also now innate sugar production on the island. Textiles industries have been one of the major industries in Mauritius for past 30 years. The Chinese population is mainly responsible for the discipline of textile on the island.(Source http// Development Studies, Vol. 30, No. 1, 2002Firm Size, Technological Capabilities andMarket-oriented Policies in MauritiusGANESHAN WIGNARAJA*)2.2.5 EnvironmentalIn recent years, the United Nation Development Programme UNDP Environment Unit Mauritius has succeeded in mobilizing resources and increasing environmental sustainability in both Mauritius and Seychelles. The main achievements includeThe adoption of a sustainable environmental management plan for an industrial estate that has served as a beat for replication in other industrial estatesThe creation of a co-management unit and the designation of a Marine Protected Area in RodriguesA comprehe nsive portfolio of Global Environment Facility (GEF) projects developed for implementation procession of biodiversity conservation in SeychellesSupporting the development of an Energy Policy for Mauritius sagacity of national capacity gaps for environmental management in SeychellesNational Plan for phase out of POPs in MauritiusUNDP remains committed to the continuation and sweetening of support and local and regional initiatives so as to promote environmental protection in Mauritius, Seychelles and the region.(Source http// LegalGovernments objective is to transform Mauritius into an outside(a) financial and avocation hub built on strong foundations. A number of important legislations were passed over the past few years to ensure that the legislative frame pass water meets all the international bristleards and also aimed at improving the capability and competitiveness of our financial services sector.Company lawBusiness F acilitation (Miscellaneous Provisions) chip 2006 (Act No. 21 Of 2006)Business Registration Act 2002Co-operatives (Amendment) Act 2006 (Act No. 6 Of 2006)Development Works Corporation (Repeal) Act 2007 (Act No. 1 Of 2007Regulations made by the Minister under section 360 of the Companies Act 2001(purchase of own shares)Regulations made by the Minister under sections 355 and 360 of the Companies Act 2001The Companies Act 2001The want Act 2001(Source http// 3SWOT of Maradiva, MaurituisStrengthsA perfect destination for honeymooners, with get along silent surrounding and privacy. alone all a la poster menu provided on the island. stick outing a novel sort of sentiment to the customers An all villa conceptBasic category of the villa starts from 163 m, and is the largest square footage trying on per room in Mauritius.Each Villa has its own private plunge pool.The Only resort with Ayurvedic Spa in Mauritius which is a big competit or for Shanti Ananda hotel Mauritius, who are humanity famous for their spas.Cilantro, one of its restaurants has a live teppanyaki Japanese culinary art which is very famous all over Mauritius.WeaknessDue to the removal of brand Taj, the product Maradiva is unknown to the market, and has to create its new position in the market.Proximity from the airport isnt that good it takes more than an hour from the airport.The resort does not have a mix of rooms and villas, due to which it faces severe business losses in the slack season.Lack of qualified and trained military force is a very big problem in Mauritius due to the causa that most of the staff members are employed just after the schooling.Location- the resort is on the west coast, whereas most of the hotels, water sports activities, places to visit are on the other side of the island.The hotel only carters to the niche customers.OpportunityThe resort should position more guests from the Middle East.They should try and bum the tourist from Russia, China and Switzerland.The maturation interest of tourist looking for private holidays.ThreatUpcoming flipper star hotels.Duplication of concept with minor changes by new coming(prenominal) hotels.Being on seashore it always has a danger of the senior high tide in the sea.SegmentationMarket segmentation is the identification of portions of the market that are different from one another. Segmentation allows the firm to better repay the needs of its potential customers. Customers within any market rarely have similar needs and expectations. As the country of Mauritius had been under the rule ofBritish French people the place still holds a lot of gross ideologies thus makingit a hit destination amongst the British and French Nationals. Based on this fact theresort segmented various markets of the world into strike markets (UK, France,Germany, and Switzerland) and developing markets (India, Russia, South Africa,Australia). As Mauritius has been known as a Honeymooners Paradise so the hotel based in this fact has targeted new-fangled and moniedindividuals who would like to have their wedding done or a honeymoon. non only theyoung but the place is a hit chargeing with the elderly peopleTargetingTargeting or Target market selection is the process of deciding which market segments of the company should actively pursue to generate sales. later segmenting it various customers into segments has then found out those market segments which are super profitable. The resort inorder to tap the honeymoon and wedding market has come outwith two hard-core packages targeting those clients and are looking for a unique and classifiable experience. On more generic terms the resort looks at targeting key opinion makers,corporate leaders, well traveled discerning, who have experience of finest luxury productsand services, disposed towards high end luxury goods, looking for unique/classifiableexperiences.PositioningPositioning is done to develop a unique selling proposition for the target segment. Positioning is the understanding why hotels exist and why customers miss the company if it were to cease operation. Maradiva positioned itself as a destination resort. A company must be very ad hoc in terms of its intended positioning or unique selling proposition if it wants to stand out among the clutter of choices confronting its potential customers.Chapter 3 merchandise strategies of MaradivaMaradiva majorly depends on strange tourism, which states that the marketing stratergies can never be over emphasized. Marketing departing had the premium of getting in the customers to the resort through various means and techniques. Maradiva knew that it cannot simulate the various marketing strategies macrocosm applied by other hotels as they offer a different sort of product and need to suppose out of the box in order to formulate new marketing strategies.3.1 Pay for few nighttimes and stay for moreMaradiva not only resorted to market themselves in the form of offers but also marketed themselves in the form of various packages which are designed as per the guest needs and preferences. Various packages like free night offer which includes, the guest has to pay for five nights and stay for s blush or pay for seven nights and stay for nine nights etcetera such(prenominal) type of offers are called tactical offers.Maradiva is well aware of the mesh patterns that take place and in accordance with the same various offers are launched during lean as well as peak season. During periods of low tenancy these tactical offers are provided to boost sales from their key markets mainly the major tour operators who provide maximum business to the hotel. they are implemented with an thinking of generating occupancy levels so as to keep the business running comfortably. The tactical offers are designed in such a way so as to garner maximum amount of business during lean season and to maintain the influx of guests during peak season. As the tactical offers are different for different tour operators and vary a lot with the country as well, in U.K (5nights=10nights) France ( one spa treatment per person)3.2 Mauritian processional Offer A tool to capitalize on domestic marketMauritius even though is a small island and the potential of domestic tourism is not phenomenal but every marketer intuitive feelings that there is an opportunity in every situation. There is no dearth of people who want to live a life of luxury or would want to spend a day or two at a place where they feel theres value for money. Taking all that into retainer the Sales Marketing team up of the resort came up with an offer known as Mauritian Promotion Offer in order to attract some local niche clientele. The offer was officially launched in December 2006 as a tactical offer but later owing to its potential it was later upgraded to an all year round offer. The offer included a rate of MRU 14,000 per night for a Luxury Villa wi th pool, with a HB meal plan comprehensive in the package.3.3 Wedding and HoneymoonersMaradiva is the perfect place for romantic luxurious holidays, the idol love nest for newlyweds. During earlier times when the resort just came into be they had a basic and simple marketing strategy to market the hotel as a wedding or a honeymoon destination among young couples in the form of wedding and honeymoon packages which would include the accommodation along with the various formalities that need to be performed which is taken care of by the guest relation manager. The guests are also provided with various facilities like candlelit dinner, champagne breakfast, and massage for the groom and various beauty treatments for the bride. The honeymoon package would become of providing a 50% discount on the brides twin sharing rate along with various added values like coffee scrub, candlelit dinner, champagne breakfast, blush petal bath etc.3.4 Affiliation packagesMaradiva is affiliated to Lead ing group of small hotels, Great hotels of the world, Leading Spas f the world which helps the resort to generate more room nights than its competitors. The customers had the choice of choosing the package amongst a wide tramp of packages depending on their needs. For example a guest could choose a 5 dayMaradiva Spa Stress Relief and Relaxation which would spread across a span of 5 days and has been carefully designed inorder to provide absolute relaxation to the guest. The package would encompass things like Level 1 2 of Yoga Meditation, Yoga Nidra, Trataka, Aroma Bath + Scrub Wrap, Surya Namaskar and Pehlwan Malish. The resort also boosted of a Golf Package as the resort was in close proximity to the Tamarina Golf Course.RecommendationIn this section the detective has illustrated various marketing stratergies implemented by Maradiva, Mauritius and the SWOT analysis done by the researcher on the marketing strategies would enlisting few recommendations based on the knowledg e and experience garnered during the operational and project stage of understudyMaradiva should look at penetrating other new emerging markets such as South Africa, Middle East, Australia, Russia and India by developing a holistic approach, with the use of explicit marketing tools catering in specific to the particular market. By doing so the resort would be able to remove the dependability factor on its few restricted key markets and in turn would help them in beingness better prepared for unforeseen situations.With the growing spending power of people in the developing countries it would not be wrong to target those people who prefer travelling abroad during holidays by having country specific holiday packages in order to profit from situation. The hotel needs to take into consideration various countries trend for holidays.Internal marketing Hotels should practice internal marketing the hotel should motivate their customer contact employees and all their service people to work as a team to provide customer satisfaction.External marketing The sales marketing should have good communication skills and should provide more interactional sessions to their clients should be able to market the product efficiently.The resort has done a lot to their micro internet site but the researcher still feels that the website can be made more appealing by adding blogs, interactive event / activity calendars, hotel guest scrapbooks, photo sharing contests, testimonials which helps in generating interests site stickiness ultimately increase the bookings.The airfare for a place like Mauritius is quite overpriced and this discourages budget travellers from coming to the country. A possible solution for this could be combinative offers with airlines like Air Mauritius and Emirates which could help create a new segment of customers for the hotel. The hotel from its side needs to establish a healthy relationship with such airlines so that offers such as room fare inclusive of airfare would win customers to come to the hotel.In this tech savvy age the resort can also look at establishing a database of e mail id of their sure customers and can optimally use the e mail marketing technique in order to reward customers and offer lower rates to them which do not generally feature on the website.ConclusionsMarketing has been and would always be an integral part of the smooth functioning of a hotel. Without proper marketing strategies there wouldnt be any guests coming to the property or even if they would be the hotel would be targeting the wrong sort of clientele to cater to. Marketing in hospitality industry is a balanced form of being an art with a lot of science behind every finish being taken under its domain. A more common feeling is that marketing activities are prepared in order to inform the customers almost the products that they may enjoy or that they may improve their life in some way. Few marketers also see it as an opportunity for specific reasons like encouraging repeat purchases and building brand loyalty and affinity.Mauritius, having a very small population with large number of hotels coming up hospitality personnel are not afraid of losing their jobs. Their attitude is set back, with the habit of procrastinating things. In order to attract and retain repeat guests it is incumbent to primarily retain honest and loyal service personnel. The main reason why Maradiva had to roll down its shutters was its inability to attract guests to occupy its villas. There were a few minor errors with the marketing aspect. It was the price that did not suit many tourists pocket. Maradiva also faced a problem of its inventory being less i.e.only has villas. Other five star hotels which had a mixture of villas and rooms did roaring business at the same time. This clearly goes to show that the hotel should have done a more precise market survey before going into such a loss.

Liam McCormicks Church Architecture

Liam McCormicks perform service service computer architectureFig 1 Photograph St Aengus, Burt________________Word Count 2,439Liam McCormick is champion of the or so recognised architects in juvenile Irish church computer computer architecture. He has introduced design principles in his buildings, which were non hardly innovative and unique, only when were more or less radical in Ireland at that time. One of the near famous churches that he designed was St. Aengus Church, Burt that was built over the period of 1964-67.When examining Liam McCormicks overwork at Burt we throne see similarities between his ideologies and design principles that former(a) famous architects take in be perspectives employed in their architectural work. However, the question is, who and what helped insteeple him? What be the ideas, hooeys and methods behind the overall design? All these questions culminate in the device of this remarkable church.McCormick c befully selected a invest, whic h lies straight below the ancient arm of Grianan an Ail individually. The land itself stretches down to Lough Swilly below and benefits from the impressive views of the skirt countryside.What I settle most interesting is McCormicks distinct ability to read a site and produce remarkable buildings from that. This alone sets him ap art from many of his Irish church architectural peers. It is obvious that when he designed Burt Church he had interpreted inspiration non only from other architects besides also from the border context in which the church integrates itself.With the site being located bordering to the Grianan an Aileach fort, McCormick has taken the fundamentals from its historic design and implemented them in spite of appearance his modern church impression. By doing so he has blended historic case in point with the usable and aesthetic requirements of what he believes a modern church should expect.thither is no doubt that Grianan is the inspiration behind the b roadsheet form of the church at Burt. The idea of a billhook church was radical and it had not been attempted in Ireland before.1With the church being integrated with the surrounding landscape, McCormick has last made the church and the land at one with each other. This has a sacred signification of the church being part of Gods Earth. This allows the stamp that the parishioners can be closer to their faith, or feel more at kin within this type of church.McCormick himself commented on the church and how it integrated with the land and also the great tutelage to dilate that was employed by all that worked on the building.It is not practically that a building is found, such as the minuscular country church, which speaks so clearly of the loving automobilee which has been lavished on it by the architect, builder, client, artists, craftsmen and everyone connected with it. This is as perfect an example of integration with its magnificent site, as it is, probably possible to ha ppen upon.2McCormick has buildd a romantic relationship of form and material with the historic fort, which lies preceding(prenominal) Burt church. McCormick has sensitively merged the church into the site, by choosing to recitation natural stone for the walls and copper for the detonating device. In utilising these materials McCormick has helped blend the church into the anchor in which it resides.The church has been cleverly designed so that you can appeal it from both sides. There is a path from the car park directly opposite and gentle rising steps from the road below which assemble at a cobble edged circle out-of-door the grip to the church. In a way McCormick is using his design to symbolise deliverance people together from all directions of life, something that both religion and the church adopt aimed to achieve. However, they might not have succeeded successfully in this venture.Fig 2 Photograph Church entree from roadwayand car park. St Aengus, Burt.When you firs t approach the church you feel give care you are setting foot into another(prenominal) world, or have simply stumbled on to some hobbits dwelling from captain of the Rings. Though as you climb the steps you get a feeling that it is filled with de luminositysomeful architectural moments, humble and honest in their appearance, besides cleverly resolved in the craft of their creation.McCormick achieves a sense of reach with this skilfully designed approach. His approach leads you to a concrete canopy where a pair of solid doors covered with beaten cooper with glazed side panels lie below. The low-ceilinged entrance lobby underscores the height and size of the flyer body of the church. McCormick has carefully thought through every little detail of this building and how each element will affect the appearance, feel and shine of the building to its recipients.The buildings circular plan has a clever second inside circular wall, which is situated loosely to the outside this in tu rn creates not only the circular remote faade entirely a circular internal layout disguising the auxiliary accommodation for the church, discretely from the congregation.Fig 3 Plan St Aengus, Burt.The circular form of Burt means that there is no distinctive front or rear elevation it also means there are no hidden external areas. Walking more or less the building reveals details that are both clever and subtle, and which contribute to the creation of a building that is at once cant and innovative. The external stonewall is constructed with a barrel kindred profile (inspired by Grianan an Aileach).A band of brightly coloured stain glass runs the entire circumference of the church on top of the upcountry circular wall. The outer circular stonewall carries the secondary glazing through which light penetrates the stained glass allowing the chapel to be flooded with coloured light that gives an almost kaleidoscopic effect. With the ring of glazing being positioned between the roof and the external walls there is an impression that the roof is floating, this is amplified during the hours of darkness when the lights are on. Similar to Le Corbusiers work at Ronchamp, although comparing the two would be like comparing Salisbury Cathedral to the Notre Dame.The sculpted copper roof is perhaps the most remarkable element of the building, which climaxes in an asymmetrically placed spire. The position of the spire is impose by the location of the communion table inside the church, the glazed lantern in the spire brings natural light down into the church over the altar resembling something out of a film. McCormick has purposely designed this in order to create dramatic effect within the church. The light from God so to speak, self-aggrandizing a very religious feel to the church. If the lantern had lit the entire church, the comparable effect wouldnt have been possible. This is also similar to Le Corbusiers design in Ronchamp.McCormick made the roof part of the ove rall composition, a assemble of art in which to attract people. With the roof being visible for miles in the surrounding area, he created a roof, which took a sculptural form, with expression in material. at bottom the church there are a number of structural pillars placed throughout which a appear to be not in clash with the roof by making them thinner and darker at the top, this also makes the roof appear to float, as there are no lines linking the glass to the roof.To the exterior the metaphors continue, there are a number of pools strategically placed around the building to catch the rainfall from the roof that is distributed via concrete spouts placed above the stonewall. It is Christian belief that water is a blessing and with this in promontory it is as if the church is being blessed when its raining. Which as many get laid is quite often in Ireland, some say we are innate(p) with webbed feet This is yet another incorporation of religion within the overall design.Fig 4 P hotograph Detail of circular pool andpelting spout. St Aengus, Burt.McCormicks handling of rainwater demonstrates the thought process that went into making sure each detail was correct. He also took great care and consideration when selecting the materials to be dropd, he salvaged cobblestones locally to employ for the perimeter of the church, which is paved with granite cobblestones.McCormick felt that his churches should be socially correct, that the church should reflect the society in which it was to serve both by means and nature. In other words, if the society was mainly raze class, there was no point in building a church that portrayed wealth that would make the societys congregation feel both awkward and unwelcome, not to mention standing out like sore riff from the surrounding area.McCormick carefully put forward an argument for modernism within the Irish Church architecture, he used authentic materials, which would be acquainted(predicate) to the community that the c hurch would serve, and also suitable to the climate in which it was to withstand. He used modern structural techniques without becoming alien to the craftsmen employed to evince out the construction. After all, he wanted to create a raise of art and architectural beauty that was fitting to Donegal at that time, and in doing so he required excellent craftsmanship in order to achieve his master act. McCormicks design of Burt demonstrates an enthusiasm to develop a modern church architecture appropriate to the Irish context.McCormicks masterly use of materials and high quality of workmanship, with the attention to detail evident in the construction of the building, are remarkable and were ground-breaking at the time. There is an essence from his designs that he draws extensively on things, which interest him outside of his architectural design. He obviously has a great love for the Irish landscape and what elements make up such landscape the stones, rocks and the rainLiam McCormick m anages to lift an emotional reaction from those who experience his church. In some respects its seems like he is playing God with architecture.People respond emotionally to his buildings, which is the rarest and highest acclamation any architect can receive.3It is clear McCormick was a collector of ideas. He studied and visited European works, it was the backbone of his modern approach to design he was enlightened with architectural ideas and solution from abroad.4 He then brought this forward view approach to Ireland within his church designs. His process of originality and thinking is what created the architecture that Liam McCormick produced, and what sets it off from other architecture, in particular the tradition of Hand-me-down church architecture in Ireland.5Although many of his ideas where of original nature, he took great enamor from other architects and allowed some of their ideologies and design principles to regularise his own work.Corbusier, Gropius and Alvar Aalt o were among McCormicks stated crops. He in particular admired Aaltos sense of scale, location and economy.6McCormicks architecture can be seen as somewhat a conversion to Functionalism.7 His buildings are not only functional for the job they are intended for but also embrace an innate architecture that can be compared to ideologies of Alvar Aalto.To everything its proper place, a setting dictated by its owns demands, its own aesthetic. And everything should be connected with the community served by the townspeople 8(Aalto 192420).In Aaltos own words Nothing does a town greater honor than a well- positive public life and functional public places 9(Aalto 1924 20). both(prenominal) Alvar Aalto and Liam McCormick share the unprecedented idea that society lives and survives by the architecture that is created.In Aaltos article the Humanizing of Architecture10 he examines how human beings react to forms and construction. McCormick also believes in creating architecture that pulls on t he emotions of the occupant, just as Aalto designed The Paimio Sanatorium, he tried to emphasise the environmental qualities of where his architecture was to reside.Also like Alvar Aalto, McCormick believed in a fundamental work of art, creating a picture as a whole, he was a great believer in incorporating art within his buildings and this is notably surrender at Burt, with prominent Irish artwork included. Even though McCormick took influence from other Architects, this did not make his work any less original. The concept that being influenced by a person or get together of work can lead to either imitation or a piece of work that to some extent can be taken to a different level. This is debated prominently in the Anxiety of Influence, of how influence doesnt necessarily have to be a bad thing nor does it mean that the subsequent piece of work will be better for it.But poetic influence need not make poets less original as often it makes them more original, though not therefore necessarily better.11McCormick has not only managed to create an original piece of Irish church architecture but has also managed to avoid the pressure of influence, which could have made him imitate earlier architects work. As a result he has created a lasting piece of modern architecture that has added value not only to its landscape but also the local society. The design of Burt Church actually helps enhance the religious message in which the church bestows on to its patrons.In conclusion, even the most creative of people whether they are architects or artists, all take influence from others work. In some respects, it is a degree of respect/admiration of preceding(prenominal) work, in others it is simply a way to generate further ideas or take an idea further than before. McCormick certainly has done this with Burt Church, with his clever use of material and form to blend the church with the surrounding landscape but yet give a hint of pleasure and intrigue which the use of the sculptured roof alludes to. He has managed to not only create a radical new Irish church architecture but has developed ideas from others such as Alvar Aalto, in order to create a apprehend masterpiece of work.Bloom, Harold, The worry of influence a theory of poetry, New York Oxford Oxford University Press, c1997Larmour, Paul, and Shane Toole. trades union by northwest the life and work of Liam McCormick. Dublin Gandon Editions for Irish Architecture Foundation and Irish Architectural Archive, 2008.Pollard, Carole, and Liam McCormick. Liam McCormick cardinal Donegal churches. Co. Cork Gandon Editions, 2011.Websiteshttp// Accessed declination twelfth 2016http// Accessed declination twelfth 2016The Functionalist Awakening of Alvar Aalto, Alvar Aalto Museum http// Accessed December 12th 2016http// Accessed December 12th 2016List of IllustrationsFig 1 Photograph St Aengus, Burthttp// Accessed December 12th 2016.Fig 2 Photograph Church approach from roadway and car park. St Aengus, Burt.http// December 12th 2016.Fig 3 Plan St Aengus, BurtPollard, Carole, and Liam McCormick. Liam McCormick Seven Donegal churches. Burt Gandon Editions, 2011.Fig 4 Photograph Detail of circular pool and rainwater spout. St Aengus, Burt. https// Accessed December 12th 20161 Paul Larmour, An Architectural life North by Northwest, (Gandon Editions, 2008) P.49. Taken from RIAI Yearbook 1972 (RIAI Dublin), P.232 Paul Larmour, An Architectural life North by Northwest, (Gandon Editions, 2008) P.49. Taken from RIAI Yearbook 1972 (RIAI Dublin), P.233 http// Accessed December 12th 20164 Tracy recalls McCormicks use of literature and magazines. with his almost encyclopaedic mind. Referencing, the architectural review, Domus, LArchitecture dAujourdhui, Architectural record, Bouw and werk. Joe Tracy, Forty Years with Liam North by Northwest, (Gandon Editions, 2008) P.2205 McCormick describing the tradition of hand me down copies of transitory fashion comparing Ireland to the vernacular traditions of Finland by Aalto. Liam McCormick, remembrance of things present North by Northwest, (Gandon Editions, 2008) P.186 http// Accessed December 12th 20167 The Functionalist Awakening of Alvar Aalto, Alvar Aalto Museum http// Accessed December 12th 20168 IBID9 IBID10 http// Acce ssed December 12th 201611 Harold Bloom, The anxiety of influence a theory of poetry, New York Oxford Oxford University Press, c1997, P. Introduction 7.

Saturday, March 30, 2019

Understanding The Term Data Processing Information Technology Essay

Understanding The Term Data treat Information Technology EssayData affect is any computing device process that converts entropy into instruction or knowledge. The processing is usually fictive to be automated and running on a computer. Because information atomic number 18 most useful when well-presented and actually informative, selective information-processing systems atomic number 18 often referred to as information systems to emphasize their practicality. Nevertheless, both terms are roughly synonymous, fulfilling uniform conversions data-processing systems typically manipulate raw data into information.Information Information is data that has been processed for use.Relationship between data processing and information in a computer systemWhen information is entered into and stored in a computer, it is more often than not referred to as data. After processing (such as formatting and printing), output data can again be perceived as information. Data processing is the actual process of converting the information into data and vice versa in a computer system.2 Distinguish between data and informationdata is what is entered into and stored in a computer after the data has been processed it is called information.3 why are digital computer useful in data processingA digital computer is the main mechanism utilize for transforming data in data processing.4. Describe in detail the corporal security, the social environment under which the computer performs shell.Computer perform best in a cool and clean environment as diddley and heat affect the performance of a computer system contribution B (COMPUTER PROGRAM)I. Distinguish between low level language and spirited level language.The main difference of upper-level languages and low-level languages is that high-level languages are easier to read, write, and maintain. Ultimately, programs write in a high-level language must be translated into apparatus language by a compiler or interpreter.II. apol ogise the acronymsCOBOL Acronym for common business oriented language. Developed in the late mid-fifties and early 1960s,. It is specificly popular for business applications that run on openhanded computers. COBOL is hush up the most widely used programing language in the world.FORTRAN Acronym for formula translator,. Designed by John Backus for IBM in the late 1950s, it is still popular today, particularly for scientific applications that require extensive mathematical computations. rudimentary Acronym for Beginners All- blueprint Symbolic Instruction Code. staple is genius of the earliest and simplest high-level programming languages.Despite its simplicity, BASIC is used for a wide liberal of business applications. There is an ANSI warning for the BASIC language, but most versions of BASIC include many proprietary extensions. Microsofts popular Visual Basic, for example, adds many object-oriented features to the standard BASIC.ALGOL ALGOL (short for ALGOrithmic diction)1 the de facto way algorithms were described in text-books and academic works for nigh the next 30 years.These languages are best suited for text establish data processing.III Mention and explain three special intend high level language.1 Ruby is a dynamic, reflective, general purpose object-oriented programming language.Ruby supports multiple programming paradigms (including functional, object oriented and imperative), and features a dynamic type system and automatic memory management.2 Perl is a dynamic programming language created by Larry Wall and first released in 1987. Perl borrows features from a variety of other languages including C, shell scripting (sh), AWK, sed and Lisp.1 Perl was widely adopted for its strengths in text processing and lack of the arbitrary limitations of many scripting languages at the time.23 Python is a general-purpose, high-level programming language. Its design philosophy emphasizes programmer productivity and decree readability.2 Pythons core s yntax and semantics are minimalist, while the standard subroutine library is large and comprehensive.Python supports multiple programming paradigms (primarily functional, object oriented and imperative), and features a fully dynamic type system and automatic memory management it is therefrom similar to Perl, Ruby, Scheme, and Tcl.IV. What is a language processor and why are they inevitableA hardware device designed or used to perform tasks, such as processing program code to machine code. Language processors are found in languages such as Fortran and COBOL . They are requirement because they are used to convert your program code to machine codeV. what is the difference between a compiler and interpreter?Compiler leadtranslate the sourcecode written in some kind of programming language, and then ultimately translates it into object code or machine language whileThe interpreter translates instructions one at a time, and then executes those instructions immediately. The compiler is itself a computer program written usually in some implementation language.SECTION C(DBM)Define the next1. FieldA field is a space allocated for a particular item of information. A tax form, for example, contains a number of palm one for your name, one for your Social Security number, one for your income, and so on. In database systems, fields are the smallest units of information you can access. In spreadsheets, fields are called cells. roughly fields have certain attributes associated with them. For example, some fields are numerical whereas others are textual, some are long, while others are short. In addition, all field has a name, called the field name.2. RecordRecords are composed of fields, individually of which contains one item of information. A set of records constitutes a file. For example, a effect file might contain records that have three fields a name field, an address field, and a phone number field.Some programming languages allow you to define a special dat a structure called a record. Generally, a record is a combination of other data objects. For example, a record might contain three integers, a floating-point number, and a instance string.3. FileA file is a collection of data or information that has a name, called the filename. Almost all information stored in a computer must be in a file. There are many different types of files data files, text files , program files, directory files, and so on. polar types of files store different types of information. For example, program files store programs, whereas text files store text.4. eccentric personShort for binary digit, it is the smallest unit of information on a machine. A single bit can hold only one of twain values 0 or 1. More meaningful information is obtained by combining unbent bits into larger units. For example, a byte is composed of 8 consecutive bits.5.CharacterA character is any symbol that requires one byte of storage. This includes all the ASCII and all-embracing AS CII characters, including the space character the term character is generally reserved for letters, numbers, and punctuation.(ii) invest three file organisation method known to you and state their chastity and demerit.

Tranformational Leadership And Mahatma Ghandi

Tranformational leadinghip And Mahatma GhandiAccording to Yukl (2010), attractionship is the process of influencing others to understand and agree about what involve to be done and how to do it, and the process of facilitating individual and collective efforts to secure shared objectives.To put it simply attractorship is the art of motivating a group of concourse to act towards achieving a common goal. The draw is the inspiration. He/she is the person in the group that possesses the combination of personality and skills that tie others ask to follow his/her direction.Gandhi tells us a tale of how a person squirt make a difference. The depiction describes how he alternates the perspective of people and creates a revolutionary change. He was the pre-eminent political and ideological attracter of India during the Indian emancipation movement. He led the non-violence resistance movement a relieve oneselfst the British colonial bump in India during the first half of the tw entieth century. He pioneered Satyagraha which is defined as the resistance to oppression through mass polished disobedience, a philosophy firmly founded upon ahimsa, or total non-violence. This concept not only processed India score independence but excessively providential movements for civil rights and freedom crosswise the serviceman.Known as Mahatma (great soul), Gandhi was the leader of the Indian nationalist movement against British rule, and is widely considered as the father of the nation. His doctrine of non-violent protests, through his weapons of the true and eff to achieve political and social progress has been largely influential to leaders across the world. (BBC on Gandhi)The following section deals with several leadership theories that give the gate be used to explain Gandhis leadership style as visualized in the movie (Gandhi, 1982).TRANSFORMATIONAL leaders THEORYAccording to Bass (1985, 1996), the leader reads and motivates followers by making them more aware of the magnificence of trade union movement outcomes, inducing them to transcend their own self interest for the sake of the memorial tablet or team, and activating their higher order needs. (Yukl, 2010)Transformational leadership increases follower motivating and performance. The extent, to which a leader is transformational, is measured in terms of his influence on the followers. The followers of such a leader find out trust, admiration, loyalty and consider for the leader and be effort of these qualities of the transformational leader are willing to work harder than originally expected. These outcomes spend because the transformational leader offers followers something more than just working for self gain they provide followers with an animate mission and vision, and provide them an identity. The leader creates dictatorial change in the followers and induces people to be aware of what they feel to feel their true needs so strongly, to define their values so meanin gfully, that they so-and-so be moved to purposeful action. In this leadership style, the leader also enhances the motivating, performance and morale of his follower group.Gandhi demonstrated transformational leadership. His followers were influenced by his drastic method of nonviolent protests and he instilled trust, loyalty, admiration and appraise amongst his followers. He also transformed his followers in a literal grit changed them in mind and heart, enlarged vision and clarified purposes to make behavior congruent with his beliefs, principles and values.Bass (1996) further described four types of transformational leadership deportment Idealized influence, intellectual input signal, individualized consideration and inspirational motivation.Types of transformational leadership demeanor in context to the movie Transformational StyleMeaningRelation to the movieIdealized influenceArouse strong follower emotions and identification with the leader. compass an example of cou rage and dedication, and making self sacrifices to attain the followers.Gandhi talked about truth and love and preached the same through his non-violence resistance movements such as satyagraha and non-cooperation. Sacrifices worry time away from family and long fasting periods for social protest.Intellectual stimulationBehaviour that increases follower awareness of problems and influences followers to view problems from a late perspective.Gandhi held several meetings to talk about the issues faced by people and the importance of following his values to postulate for the coarses independence. He also ensured that his beliefs were followed in the flair as he preached.Individualized considerationInvolves communicating personal respect to followers by providing support, encouragement and coaching.Gandhi was interactive, spoke to everyone and knew what was happening in their lives. Got twisty with everyone and made them feel important by providing support whenever possible.Inspir ational motivationInspiring and empowering followers to enthusiastically accept and pursue challenging goals and missions.Gandhi inspired his followers through his principles and protests for which he was also sent to prison on various occasions. He was determined that his beliefs would finally attain swaraj (independence).Two unwrap effects that transformational leaders achieve are to evoke strong emotions and cause identification of the followers with the leader. Mahatma Gandhi is a great example of a transformational leader because of his contribution not just to his country but to social persuasion around the world that inspired many other different world leaders. Gandhi is considered as one of the few individuals who embodied the ideals of a transformational leader.SERVANT LEADERSHIP THEORYServant leadership is primarily about helping people and fostering a relationship of trust and cooperation. Servant leaders moldiness listen to followers learn about their needs and aspirati ons, stand for what is right(a) and right, oppose social injustice and inequality, must respect and appreciate the vague and marginal members of gild and also empower followers instead of using power to dominate them.Greenleaf (1977) proposed that service to followers is the primary obligation of leaders. The consideration leader is a servant first. It begins with the natural feeling that one wants to help, to serve first. Another important quality of a servant leader is the power to accept his people unconditionally. It is creative as it stems from a genuine head ache for the people rather than external motivations such as the need for power. It also leads to larger issues as it ultimately leads to a desire to serve the society at large.A servant leader is motivated, not by a desire to control others, but by a desire to help them realize their dignity and power. Gandhi preached non-violence and dedicated his life to the achievement of a rectify life for the downtrodden. He served as a catalyst and example, providing vision and inspiring hope. He empowered the masses to manifest to the sea to make sodium chloride. In doing so they demonstrated their capacity for self governance and impressed upon account statement a very powerful image.One of the key qualities of the true servant leader is that he is chosen by the people. When Gandhi was returning to India after the finishing of the case for which he had gone to South Africa, he was given a farewell party. Over there, he expressed his concerns for the bill that was then out front the House of Legislature that sought to deprive Indians of their franchise. Before he quite knew it, he had been elected by the people to stay on and fight for their rights. This was the beginning of his mission to serve adult maleityServant leaders transform people and bring out what they themselves dont suspect is in them. Gandhi did the same with the Indian masses during their struggle for independence. Gandhi als o stated that service to the poor has been my police wagon desire and it has always thrown me amongst the poor and enabled me to identify myself with them.Hence we can say that Gandhi was the quintessential servant leader.Key values of a servant leader with examples from the movie-IntegrityGandhi always communicated in an open and honest way. He only preached what he practiced himself and which were consistent with his values. He admitted and accepted responsibility for mistakes and never attempted to manipulate or deceive people. For example Gandhi swore to tattle the truth and advocated others to do the same.AltruismGandhi was willing to make sacrifices to protect and benefit others and always put the needs of others ahead of his own needs. For instance his longing strike for activities which he believed were wrong such as riots between Hindus and Muslims, his march to the sea to make salt as he believed the British Empires monopoly of salt was wrong.HumilityGandhi always treat ed others with respect, avoided status symbols and special privileges and was always down in the mouth about his achievements. For illustration he respected his colleagues as well as people from all castes and creed. Despite being proclaimed a leader by the masses he always emphasized that he was not a leader and lived in modesty in a settlement in India with only the prefatory essentials required by a human being. He also spun the cloth that he wore which was the khadi.Empathy and healingGandhi helped others cope with activated distress, encouraged forgiveness and reconciliation after a conflict and acted as a pacifier. For example upon his return to India he travelled various regions of the country and met with a lot of villagers who were suppressed by the landlords, given measly remuneration and lived in extreme poverty. He heard their stories and provided them courage to protest against the landlords for which he was sent to prison also. Also to act as a peacemaker for the religious tensions within the country he stated that I am a Muslim and a Hindu and a Christian and a Jew and so are all of you.Fairness and justiceGandhi encouraged and back up the fair treatment of people, spoke against unjust and unfair policies and opposed violations of civil rights. For instance when he realized that the laws in South Africa were biased against the Indians, he decided to start a non-violent protest campaign to obtain basic rights for all Indians. He quoted that The function of a civil resistance is to paint a picture response and we will continue to provoke until they respond or change the law. They are not in control we are. The government finally relented by recognizing rights for Indians.DEVELOPMENT OF A LEADERLeadership can be learnt foreign the trait theory which states that leaders are born with certain characteristics that make them a leader. The development of Gandhi as a leader explains how people or environments affect the actions of leaders. Gan dhi was not a leader by birth, he authentic the skills required to be an telling leader.In the movie it is very explicitly clear that Gandhi learnt and developed his leadership skills in South Africa and honed them in India. He had a feeling for his followers, but he developed tools and methods to become an effective leader over time. He had rock solid values from which his activities stemmed, and he had a totally interdependent relation with his followers.

Friday, March 29, 2019

Evaluating Organisation Values and Structure

Evaluating Organisation Values and Structure scheme goal lay to the spiritedest degree be defined as a in operation(p) element of a subscriber line that comprise of fundamental lawal hold in, experiences and beliefs and the cultural norms of the organization. The peculiar(prenominal) collection of these values and attributes argon sh argon by the employees inwardly an organization and argon controlled according to the level of interaction mingled with them. The important protectors of organisational kitchen-gardenings atomic number 18 the employees within the organization and the stakeholders outside the organization. thusly this report talk ofes the place aspects of organisational culture and behaviour and also covers prefatorial theories related to organisational anxiety. organisational values pile be attributed to the beliefs and ideas of the man-to-mans within the organizations regarding the strategic goals. The organizational values are conveyed right from the top of the organizational pyramid to the bottom. As far as organizational culture is concerned, t here(predicate) are diverse factors comprising of the organizational culture. These factors include employees, creation of values, upgradeth, commitment, pauperization and future emphasis. Organizational values and culture act upons the kind of behaviour individuals carry within a playact place. then these are the staple fiber concept regarding organizational culture and values.It is a well known fact that an organization cannot succeed without a articulate organizational culture and demonstrable behaviour of the individuals comprising the organization. There are unlike factors that warp the behaviour of individuals and are an important part of the organizational culture. each(prenominal) these phenomenons and former(a) activities much(prenominal) as coordination, task e preciseocations which are together with enjoin towards achieving the organizational object ives consist of the organizational bodily structure.Most of the organizations crap organization structures comprising of the agglomerative entities. The structure of an organization depends of its objectives and the strategies which are formulated to achieve these objectives. Organizational structure enables great(p) responsibilities for variant business operations to various business entities such as department, lastgroup or group up, individuals and m whatever more. If an organization doesnt drive home a heavy structure, thither are chances that it might face difficulties in achieving its objectives. We sh all in all now discuss organizational structure and culture in more detail.Organizations witness diametrical cultures beca call they consist of antithetic types of individuals. The culture within an organization has direct implications on its motion and also reflects its values and beliefs. If there is no alignment between the organizational culture and the partici pations business strategies, the company go away struggle to get to with full potential and satisfy the objectives of its stakeholders. There are many types of organizational cultures as purposeed by various academic scholars. First of all, there can be Collaborate organizational culture which is found where the study is easy and friendly and employees share lot of things among themselves. Next is the Create culture wherein the workplace is dynamic, entrepreneurial and innovative and experimentation is considered to be the driving factor for development. past we book the Control culture wherein the organization is very structured and formal and employee behaviour is governed by the set rules and procedures. at last, we lease Competitive culture which is ascertained in the results seeking organizations with employees being highly competitive, goal-oriented and productive. so these are dissimilar types of organizational cultures which have direct or corroboratory effects of business proceeding.The main factor of organizational structure and culture that drives the serveance is allow foringhip. leading is characterized by the focus on internal business environment, organizational persuasiveness and business results. hence all the organizations thrive to create a sustainable and robust culture that ensures future viability of the business and enhanced proceeding. Figure 1 explains the main factors of organizational culture and its impact on performance.Figure1 Organizational assimilation and PerformanceFactors influencing Individual behaviourIndividual behaviour within a workplace is influenced by various factors such as emotions, culture, persuasion, values, norms, ethics and personalized postures. The main factor influencing merciful behaviour is the work environment and organizational culture. For example, if an employee is highly incites within a workplace, he/she would develop a positive approach towards work and the productivity will increase along with the profits. On the other hand, if an individual faces issues such as ignorance, demoralization, corruption and unethical behaviour, this will have a negative impact of the individuals behaviour. Moreover the individuals abilities and skills, perception and character also help in determining his/her behaviour within an organization. Thus there are the main factors that affect an individuals behaviour within an organization.Organizational TheoriesThere are various organizational theories in academic literary productions using which the organizations survive in the competitive market. The foremost organizational speculation is the contingency possibleness which suggests that whenever the company management takes important finis, they should consider all the aspects of the companys current performance and act accordingly. Next is the systems theory which considers the organizations in a broader perspective and helps in interpreting the market and anticipating th e needs of customers. Then we have the scientific management theory which helps in accurate measurement and supervise of organizational tasks and also the strategies developed in rescript to achieve these goals. Finally there is the human relations theory which supports the idea of trade unions and political science regulations. According to this theory, more emphasis is stipulation to employees and their potential in the organization.The main culture and subculture within an organization plays an important role in the company and is also vital for its mastery or disappointment. Thus these are the prefatory organizational theories that play a crossificant role in organizational management. These theories help in every aspect of organizational management as they help is management operations such as sales forecast, performance supervise, decision making, enhancing the business networks and so on. Thus we shall now discuss about management theories and organizational culture o f two organizations namely Google and Microsoft.Google have very different and unique approaches towards management. The main management approach of Google is effective employee discussion and motivation by providing a wonderful experience at work. wholly Google employees are called as Googlers and the whole organizational culture of Google is very unique. For example, employees have the liberty to comment on the companys strategies or give suggestions to the top management personals. The company management principles consider all its employees equally important for the success of the company. Googlers were allowed to carry their pets at workplace, were given part with lunch and snacks and other amenities. Thus one can clearly suggest that Googles zero percent employee dis instal rate is an excellent testament to its respectable organizational culture.Moving onto Microsoft, managers here are described as Mentors and employees as Pupils. Mentors in Microsoft carry high profile w ith a wealth of familiarity and experience whereas pupils are advance to be hard-working and enthusiastic to take risks. Microsoft has been successful over the years by using a sound organizational structure. The company is managed by 10 Board of Directors who are elected every year. The company is sub-categorized into various aggroup ups that overcompensate critical aspects of business. All the employees of Microsoft share the same values and beliefs and the expectations they have from the company. These shared views affect the companys performance, decision making and also team performance. Employees are allowed to grow within the company as a part of the virile organizational culture Microsoft has. Thus over the years, Microsoft has successfully employ its organizational culture and resources in order to achieve its business objectives.Thus these are the different approaches towards management of two organizations namely Google and Microsoft. There is one thing greens bet ween the two companies as far as the role of applied science in organizational culture is concerned. Both the companies are equipped with latest technological gadgets that make it easy for them to give good performance, analyze markets, anticipate future forecasts and many more. One can clearly comment that and so the organizational culture and sound approaches towards organizational management are the basic elements needed by the organization to have an demonstrate over its rivals. Thus we shall now discuss about various leadership styles and their effectiveness in leadership approaches.Importance of different leadership stylesLeadership style can be defined as the effective behaviour of leaders towards achieving team objectives and management of the team. It can also be considered as the way of giving direction to others, implementing strategies and motivating individuals. There are numerous leadership styles discussed in the academic history. We shall now discuss about diffe rent leadership styles and their brilliance in organizational performance. The set-back is autocratic style where all the decision making authority lies with the leader. Here the leader doesnt pay much management to the suggestions given to him/her and all the initiatives taken are the leaders duty. The only service here is that the leader possesses extreme wealth of knowledge and experience which is used to achieve organizational goals. Next is the Participative style wherein the leader consults his/her group of team before making decisions. This is very advantageous as far as team performance is concerned. This style also helps members of the team to self motivate by taking active part in team discussions. classless leadership style ensures that the leader takes the final decision but consults a couple of individuals regarding the decision making process. This leadership style is a sign of strength as it helps in earning the respect from employees. Finally we have the free rei gn leadership style, wherein employees are allowed to take their own decisions. However the responsibility of the decision lies on the leaders shoulder but this helps the employees to analyze situations and determine the strategies. Here the tasks are generally arrestd based on the precession factor of an individual task. Thus these are some of the leadership styles that the leaders in real world carry with themselves in order to complete tasks or achieve organizational goals.There are various factors that influence the different leadership styles within the organization. These include available time, responsibility, and possession of reading, knowledge of employees, internal conflicts, and stress levels, type of objectives and finally the rules and regulations of the organization. All these factors highly influence the leadership styles in a way that there is lot of hesitation that same style would be used for the whole process of achieving organizational objectives. Thus these are the main issues regarding different leadership styles and their effectiveness.Motivation TheoriesIn order to discuss the application of motivational theories within a workplace, we shall first discuss about different types motivational theories. The first is the incentive theory wherein a tangible or an intangible reward or gain ground is given to the employee after completion of a particular task or exceptional services. According to this theory, the reward given to the employee will motivate him/her to underwrite giving exceptional service to the organization and develop positive attitude towards work. Next is the need motivational theory suggesting that the needs and wants of a human being reflect the type of performance given by them. The finale of one need motivates individuals to work harder in order to fulfil the neighboring need or a want.Over the years, there has been very strong relationship between the motivation theories and management holds in organizations. M otivation theories are the driving factors that positively influence the performance of individuals and hence the company. On the other hand, management theories cover effective administration as well as the business. Both these theories are interrelated and work together. For example, a manager motivates an employee by giving certain benefits or rewards for hard work and as a result the productivity of the employee goes up and so does the profits of the company. In this case, the manager applied motivation theory and the whole process comes under the management theory which includes using relevant resources in order to meet the objectives or get the work done. Moreover, if a sound motivation theory is not applied then the overall process of management has chances of not concourse the expected outcomes. Thus one can clearly suggest that indeed, the motivation theories have sound influence on the management theories within any given organization. Thus we shall now try to evaluate th e nature and work behaviour of groups or teams and also discuss the factors that lead to their failure or effectiveness.Team effectiveness and failureA very common practice observed within many organizations is the formation and working in teams. works in team enables completion of goals with team efforts and condensing bigger objectives into small individual tasks. Teams can be formed within an organization with different departments, rank of employees, based on projects and also based on abilities of individuals. In the case of team efforts, the whole team is responsible for completion of the given task and if one member underperforms then it can affect the performance of the whole team. Thus specific groups are formed in order to complete the given task in a specific direction which a single individual cannot perform.Groups or teams have different natures or behaviours which influence their performance. The team or group can be ambitious, enthusiastic, hard-working, motivated, inexperienced, disorganise and many more. All these factors directly or indirectly lead to the team effectiveness or failure. The factors or behaviour of the team that leads to its effectiveness are high esprit de corps, motivation, energetic, high experience, well coordinated and hard working. For example, if a team has these factors then it can easily coordinate and work hard collectively in order to achieve team goals.On the other hand, factors such as individual concerns, lack of coordination, dissatisfaction among members, over ambitious leader, low morale and lack of experience can lead to the team failure within an organization. For example, if a team has less experience and coordination among team members, then it is evident that the performance cannot be enhanced and thus leading to the team failure. Thus these are the main factors that affect the whole performance of the team and which lead to the team effectiveness or failure. We shall now analyze the role of technolog y on team functioning within an organization.Impact of Technology on Team FunctioningIn todays world, almost all the businesses are lade with technology and make the full use of technological equipments in order to run their administration tasks. Technologies such as e-mails, mobile phones, Blackberry, groupware, computers and laptops have play significant role in improving team performance. For example, if team members are not at a same place, they can still have a communication via the e-mail. Mobile phones have brought a big diversity in the world of technology which helps team members when they are out of the office, on the road or otherwise unavailable. Groupware helps the team members to plan important meetings and join in a virtual environment which can be accessed from all parts of the world. Finally computers and laptops allow team members to use internet and perform various business tasks very easily. Thus these are the main factors that have a deep impact on the team f unctioning.There are so many other technological factors that influence the team performance. For example, there has been extensive advancement in the technological gadgets such as icon conferencing, web cam, fax, printers, scanners and many more have direct or indirect influence on team functioning. As far as study technology is concerned, it helps the team to perform back-end operations such as monitoring sales forecast, managing customer database, conducting business through websites, using various software product and many more. Information technology plays a vital role in todays organizations and is the determining factor for the success or failure of the organization. The development of information technology over the years is showing no signs of slowing down. A region-wide Wi-Fi and nanotechnology are the latest inventions that boost all the aspects of business functionalities. Thus these are the main impacts of technology on the team as wells as business functioning.Conclu sionThus one can clearly suggest from all the above discussions that indeed a sound organizational culture and organizational structure plays the determining factor for the success or failure of the organization. In this competitive business environment, all the companies are constantly nerve-wracking to improve their organizational culture so that they can have an edge over their competitors. Employees are a very important aspect of organizational culture and thus there are various factors that influence individual behaviour at the workplace.Thus these organizational theories underpin all the basic principles of management. The example of Google and Microsoft explained that how a sound organizational culture helped the companies to progress toward their sought after goals. An organization consists of various individuals and these individuals can work together forming various teams among themselves. As we have seen, there are many factors that affect the team performance and thus a positive organizational culture will evermore have a positive impact on the team performance. Finally, the use of technology in recent years has been the driving factor in the effective working of a team or an individual or a company.

Thursday, March 28, 2019

Father-Daughter Relationship in the Film, William Faulkner: A Life on Paper :: Movie Film Essays

Father-Daughter Relationship in the Film, William Faulkner A Life on ideaWhile the relationship between military chaplains and sons has been documented at length, the overprotect/ young lady dynamic figures less prominently in literary tropes in concomitant the last canonical piece I can recall variant was Euripedes Electra in high school. The tenuous relationship between Daddy and his small-minded girl, however, harbors depths much than personal and tangible than Greek tragedy and psychological analyses invoking the Electra complex. The emotionally void or aloof father in particular oft burdens the female psyche, for his absence proves just as palpable as his desire after presence, shaping the landscape of a daughters next relationships and the construction of a self-image fragmented and disjointed by an early and sexual knowledge of rejection and abandonment. Transcending characterizations attached primarily to filial duty as go through by the matriarch, the father f igure remains the subject of mythologization, just as Sylvia Plath turned her father into a Colossus, a cold, inanimate st champion building revealing none of his secrets or affection. If the absent or emotionally untouchable father takes on shades of grandeur for the daughter that knew little of him, one can only imagine the impression left by the father figure whose imagined significance in the eyes of his child is only matched by the reality of his fame. William Faulkner, A Life on Paper conveys an image of the literary colossus that both perpetuates the persona of the great American writer and deflates it. Representing the designer as a fallible man who endows the world with a floor legacy while leaving his own daughter little more than a few candid glimpses into his character, the film relays the commentary of Faulkners daughter as she attempts to piece together a sketch of an apathetic, mercurial, and brilliant father. Jill Faulkner Summers pulls from her shop pictures of her father as extremely courtly and elegant only when deficient a depth and sincerity in his personal relationships Pappy didnt rightfully care about people. I think he cared about me, but I also think I could have gotten in his representation and he would have walked on me. Faulkners coarse words penetrated more than the page as well. After imploring pappy not to succumb to other drinking bout, Faulkner informs his daughter, no one remembers Shakespeares child. The film, then, relates a father/ daughter dynamic built upon emotional lack, as the father expressly negates the significance of his own child.

La Virgen de la Caridad del Cobre :: Our Lady of Charity South Florida

La Virgen de la Caridad del CobreOne of the primary unifying forces of the Cuban community in South Florida is La Virgen de la Caridad del Cobre, or Our doll of Charity. In 1898, after Cuba won its independence from Spain, she became the official patroness of the island. The Cuban soldiers credited their victory to the Virgins intervention in their crusade for independence. The Virgin is seen as a religious tradition that strongly unites Cubans on both sides of the Florida Straits. In South Florida, Cubans throughout the United States gather each year to restrain the feast of Our Lady of Charity on September the eighth. Alongside the conventional Catholic service, many within the exile congregation offer their hopes and prayers, to the Virgin, for a Cuba unfreeze from communism.Though Cuba is where the celebration of La Virgen de la Caridad del Cobre originated, each year, her statue, which was dim out of Cuba in 1961, is ferried by boat to Miami Marine Stadium. The reason for smuggle the statue, a s dopet two years after Fidels revolution, was because the Catholic worship was not allowed to be openly practiced within Cuba. In juvenile years, a mass has been celebrated to honor La Virgen at the Hialeah racetrack. victorious all these South Florida celebrations into account, one could say that the Virgin plays an important subprogram in the lives of many Cuban men and women who make the journey from Cuba to the free shores of the Florida coastline. They rely on her for protection and guidance while journeying across the Caribbean Sea.La Virgen de la Caridad del Cobre as well as La Ermita de la Caridad del Cobre, the church that was constructed in her honor, have both become important Cuban cultural landmarks. Built along a stretch of Biscayne Bay, her shrine was terminate with the donations of newly arrived Cuban exiles. The $420,000 raised helped pay for the construction costs. La Ermita can be seen as a unifying force for the Cuban cosmos in South Florida with the entire community contributing to the construction and bread and butter of this site, she belongs to everyone.

Wednesday, March 27, 2019

Religion in government: a plea for our morals and their influence in ou

Hello, I am a God-fearing, love-filled, concerned citizen who is very worried over the slow adulteration of morals held in todays society. In part this worthless condition has come about through the lack of laws restricting the bed covering of immoral subject matter in television programs and advertisement, the legalization and way of abortion as a legitimate choice over the offbeat of a child and its m another(prenominal) instead of an irreprehensible act of murder, and m each other very obvious examples of the our political relations lack of legislation to protect the morals of our American families. All of these examples, though rightfully a big reason for any Christian to be concerned there is an argument behind these problems, a cause to the growing moral irresponsibility in our governments procedure. This separation amid our legislation and our religious beliefs is based on an argument that the first primitive amendment which states Congress sh all(prenominal) make no l aws regarding the establishment of or prohibiting the free elaborate thereof. Was intended to prevent the establishment of laws supportive to religious practices and morals no matter how widely held by the citizenry. And that this is indicative to our country not universe founded on Christianity. These arguments, in my humble opinion, are asinine considering the religious backgrounds and beliefs of the framers of this massive document. These great men were community leaders, ministers, and above all, Christians. James Madison, regarded by more as the father of the constitution and primary drafter of the first amendment stated in his Memorial and Remonstrance stated, Religionis the basis and foundation of government.This is not the only if example of a founding father in support ... ...ording to Gallup, a well known polling company, just over three quarters of the U.S. universe of discourse are Christians. To me this means that the majority of citizens are indeed Christian I f our government is to function the way it was created to then should our laws not reflect the morals we all share as God fearing Christians?Works Cited*** Charity Wire (N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Nov 2010. http//**** (Lincoln, Abraham. Gettysburg Address. Gettysburg, Penn. 19 NOV 1863. Address.) **Eldenmuller, Michael E. Benjamin Franklin. American, 05 Nov 2010. Web. 15 Nov 2010.*doubting doubting Thomas Jefferson, The Writings of Thomas Jefferson (Washington D. C. The Thomas Jefferson Memorial Association, 1904), Vol. XIII, p. 292-294. In a letter from John Adams to Thomas Jefferson on June 28, 1813.

Canadian Involvement in the Suez Crisis :: Canadian Canada History

Canadian Involvement in the Suez CrisisEleven days after the second valet war, a crisis occurred which had the potential to escalate into a third world war. Hostilities ran high and the background ca exercises that prompted this crisis contained the same fundamentals as were seen in the first and second world wars. Those being militarism, alliances, imperialism and nationalism work by those countries that had an interest in the Suez Canal and the Arab states. In the world of superpowers in conflict, Canada made a name for itself through an innovative peacekeeping scheme, sooner of aggression (Encyclopedia Britannica Online, 1999-2000). If Canada had not become involved in the Suez Crisis, as a neutral party, it could have escalated into a world war. The three components which add up to the conclusion of the Suez Crisis and a bench mark for Canada and world peacekeeping be Canadas choice for those countries directly involved in the crisis, Canadas choice for involvement, and Cana das resolution of the get together Nations Emergency Force, which would put a stop to a possible world war. In the Middle East, by July 1956, tensions were rising. The Egyptians were denied currency from the Us, Britain and the World Bank for the understructure of their Aswan dam to affiliation with the Soviet Union. In desperate need of funds for the dam project, the Egyptian government had nationalize the Suez Canal Company, froze its assets in Egypt, and proposed to use canal tolls to pay for the dam (Hillmer, 1999, p. 226). In fear of the Egyptians cutting morose the transportation of Arabian inunct and Asian goods, the British, French, and Israel secretly planned an eruption on Egypt. Meanwhile, the Israelis and the Arab states, including Egypt, were having an arms race. Israel was concerned with self-preservation while the Arabs, who had opposed Israels creation, wanted to land it. The Americans opposed the British, French, and Israeli impact of Egypt because it didnt want to offend the Arab states where US oil companies were drilling. On the other hand, the US was wiling to supply Israel with weapons if the Soviet Union direct arms to the Egyptians. Such military support could inevitably have trine to a nuclear war. Through ties with Britain, Canada was expected to aid in the invasion pf Egypt but Canada was reluctant and saw how much actions might put their kindred with the Americans in danger.

Tuesday, March 26, 2019

Housewives and Prisioners: Chopin, Colette, Godwin Essay -- essays re

Housewives and Prisoners in their WorldAll three writings, The Story of an min, A paltry Wo world and The Hand portray the long led picture that women ar obligated to carrying the burdens of a household. The belief that they should descent their own desires and needs to care for the needs of their families still lingers in party today. Similarly, the women are in a marriage they will non leave, loot the burden of submission, do a love and dislike for their spouses, and desire license from the imprisonment they feeling in their life.While all three marriages are alike they do pee-pee some differences. In the same dash The Hand portrays the life of a newly married bride, The Story of an Hour vividly describes Mrs. mallard as young which would lead one to recall that both women are young in age. The description, She was young, with a fair unagitated face, whose lines bespoke repression. Describes a woman that has been married to her husband long large to have realize d her unhappiness.Also, none of the women ever speak of ending their marriage. Mrs. Mallard realizes the one joy of the death of her husband is she will never have to entertain the idea of leaving him. It comes to her as her way out. She would not have to take responsibility for the failed marriage because it has been taken care of for her. In a different manner, the woman in The Hand decides that her husbands military postures, which are represented by the description of his hair, eyes, build and arms, are nice for her to deal with his flaws, which are represented by the horrific hand. A Sorrowful Woman depicts the wifes need to stay even though she moves to a different room apart from her husband and child.Another likeness is the submiss... ... He allowed her to tend to her needs in order to keep her in his life. One could ponder the outcome of Mrs. Mallards marriage had she been clear-cut to her husband about her feelings. Some could say it would not have make a diffe rence and some could say it would. This shows the differences in the views of marriage.In conclusion, a marriage should be an alliance between two people. It should be a tie that bids a woman and a man but does not imprison them. While marriage and the social view of it has come along way many women still feel as these three did. Women feel obligated to stay in a marriage for multiple reasons, lay in to their husbands in one way or another, tend to love their man one minute but dislike them another and desire liberty of the lifestyle when it is comfortable conditions. These authors showed different views but portrayed many similarities.

Graduation Speech :: Graduation Speech, Commencement Address

When I first began considering a graduation speech, my initial beat was to spend this time discussing the advent of college preparation at Ridgemont, and the rise of abandon values. I thought it would be a good chance to acid out the fact that the quest for college admission has ground some of the opera hat mint I know into pulp, and that for the most part it seems as though both their parents, and to a large extent the school, seem afraid to pose that system for what it is. I wanted to speak to the changes happening here(predicate) at Ridgemont, that the focus of the school is being shifted from educating for character to trying to improve the cogency with which Ridgemont can heard students into the Ivy League. It seemed to me that my entire fourteen years here had led to the final understanding that a lot of what we admit been told to filter out for amounts to little more than bowing down before Mammon. But, upon reflection, I recognise that I would not be doing justice to the school and the class I love if I spent my time up here fight the parents and the school in that manner. I really owe the school and my peers a lot more than that. If it were not for my Ridgemont education, I probably would never have seen the system for what it is. Ridgemont taught me to despise that system by showing me a bring out way to do things by showing me that education, success, and happiness do not have to come at the expense of others, that I could go barely if I learned to help, and to be helped, by those around me, rather than make out against them. Ridgemonts emphasis on process versus product will stay with me for the backup of my life. So when I sat down and tried to pull together what it was about Ridgemont that made it an interesting and wonderful place to attend school, I remembered that my friend Larry had once pointed out to me the distinction between the two types of people that you can associate with. There are those that care about your soul, and those that dont. I think that the Ridgemont education, for many in my class, was one that cared for our souls, and this is what distinguishes it from other schools, and this is why it is so unlike the real world in here.

Monday, March 25, 2019

puritans :: essays research papers

prude ideas on religion and natural AmericansThe Puritan belief structure was built around the idea of treating angiotensin-converting enzyme a nonher as br other(a)s, loving single another and having compassion. The Puritans also believed everyone should be virtuous to one another. The Puritans themselves did not treat the Native Americans this way. The Puritans look at themselves as the better group of people. It did not matter who someone was or what type of skin color one had, if one did not shake off the same beliefs as the Puritans he or she was considered an outcast in their society. The Puritans see the Native Americans as savages and beasts. The Puritans relationship with the Native Americans was contrary to Puritan Christian doctrine.To understand how the Puritans viewed religion, one needs to look at how they understood their Christian God. The Puritans knew God though the bible and what their ministers preached. They did not believe that God would utter directly to mortals. The Puritan Minister Robert Cushman once stated, Whereas God of the old Testament did withdraw and summon our fathers by predictions, dreams, visions, and current illuminations. Now there is no such(prenominal) calling to be expected for any matter whatsoever. In the Puritans time, if God was to speak directly with a mortal, it was thought to be the devil in disguise. One Puritan woman, Anne Hutchinson, was believed to have predictions from God. This infuriated the Puritans because they did not believe in the idea of God giving her visions and thoughts. They believed that Satan was the one giving her these visions and thoughts. Consequently, the Puritans then banished her into the wilderness outside of Massachusetts Bay. This shows that the Puritans treated anyone who did not totally agree with them as an outcast to their society.The religious beliefs and the rituals of the Indians of southern sensitive England were in many ways how the Puritans thought the devil and wi tches to act. English observers Edward Winslow, Roger Williams, and other Puritans found out that the Indians believed that spirits would speak directly to mortals though dreams and visions.William Simmons stated, A powerful spirit known as Hobbamock was said to enter certain persons and to remain in their bodies as a guardian and familiar. Hobbamock was the Native American creator. The spirit Hobbamock was the souls of the dead that would take the shape of the human body and animals.

Title IX: Leveling the Playing Field Essay -- gender equity in sports

How does one define the success of a high schooling and college? Is it finished standardized test scores, graduates, and college applicants? Is it through winning games and playing beyond the school? Yes, in fact its all of these things. America is based on freedom and equality. America is created with Liberty and Justice for All. America is that now starting to treat women as the equals they are. Although ennoble IX has change gymnastic opportunities for women, the ratio of women to men athletic funds is un tied(p) because of the receipts main stream mens sports bring to the schools. As colleges grew in people and pride, football became the new sensation. With the predominant football schools areawide, female athletic programs werent given much thought. Football provides the schools funding through its ample packed stands. The revenue made funneled back into the football programs and left teeny funding for any other sport, male or female. In 1972, the nation finally decided to make a stand, and force schools to create and frequenter other athletic teams for females, besides cheerleading and square dancing. statute title IX was enacted in 1972 by President Richard Nixon. It requires gender equity for boys and girls in every educational program that is federally funded. Many people do not even know that Title IX exists, or if they do, that it applies to more than sports. However it applies to sports, nark to higher education, career education, education for pregnant and parenting students, employment, learning environment, math and science, informal harassment, standardized testing and technology. It forced schools to even the playing field and carry through womens sporting teams. Before Title IX, it was nearly impossible to deliver a f... ...011. Davis, Paula M. Imagine Fund Will Offer Race and Gender-based Scholarships in Response to 2006 Anti-affirmative Action Law. MLive. Michigan Live LLC, 20 Aug. 2008. Web. 06 Feb. 2011.Grant, Christine. A Title IX Presentation. Bailiwick. The University of Iowa Libraries, 25 Sept. 1995. Web. 10 Feb. 2011. Lopiano, Donna. Title IX Q & A - Womens Sports Foundation. Title IX. Womens Sports Foundation, 26 May 2005. Web. 10 Feb. 2011. Rhode, Deborah L., and Christopher J. Walker. Gender Equity in College sport Women Coaches as a Case Study. NCAA. National College Athletics Association, 26 Mar. 2008. Web. 6 Feb. 2011. Weistart, John. Equal Opportunity? Title IX and Intercollegiate Sports. Wilson Web, Fall 1998. Web. 2 Feb. 2011. Christine Grant Sports Management Resources. Our Consultants. Sports Management Resources. Web. 10 Feb. 2011.

Sunday, March 24, 2019

British Imperialism and the Crisis in the Sudan Essay -- Darfur Region

British Imperialism and the Crisis in the Sudan Introduction One of the globes mop humanitarian crisis is currently unfolding in the Darfur realm of the Sudan. For the past 22 months, more than 70,000 Sudanese have been killed, and nearly 2 million tidy sum have fled their homes to neighboring countries. This paper attempts to explore this present day polite war and genocide taking place in the Sudan. This is an event of epic proportions that will have vast implications for the future of the country and the continent. Understanding the storey of European colonialism in Africa, as focused through the lense of the Sudan, is the single-valued function of this paper. Primarily, the paper will analyze the history of European imperialism in the region of the Sudan, and attempt to understand how the British occupation of the country provided the framework and nucleotide for many of the problems today. Furthermore this paper will explore the implications that this genoci de will have in the international realm of politics the lack of media word picture of such an horrific event is another avenue of exploration in this paper. In present day Sudan the country is divided across political and religious lines that are so deeply rooted that a field pansy resolution does not seem likely in the near future. The world is simply waiting and hoping that the conflict will be resolved internally without aid from the outside world. The manner in which the world is responding to the conflict in the Sudan is indicative of the manner in which the world has always viewed Africa and its people. Dating subscribe to as early the 1400s the world has always viewed the people of Africa as second class citizens and have treated them as such. This mindset still p... ...aphyAnderson, G. Norman. Sudan in Crisis The also-ran of Democracy. Gainesville University Press of Florida,1999.Khalid,Mansour. War and Peace in of the United Kingdom Kegan Paul, 2003. Thomas, Graham F. Sudan Struggle for Suvival. London Darf Publishers Ltd., 1990.Voll, John O. Sudan State and Society in Crisis. Bloomington Indiana University Press, 1991.The Economist. 31 July 2004. gentlemans gentleman Rights Watch. http// 27 August 2004. Socialist Party. http// Oxfam News.http// news program/Sudan/Q&A2.htm. November News.http// Department of State.http// October 2004.