Tuesday, April 30, 2019
Using the topic, thesis statement, and supporting points from your DB 1 posting, - Essay recitationWith this being said, many persons think that children need to stop playing at school so that they disregard get to the work of pick uping academics. Although it may appear that play is not important in basis of the academic achievement of early childhood students, in fact, play is vital to their future educational victoryThrough play, young children fill social skills such as taking turns and sharing. They learn communication skills such as listening to others without interrupting and asking for help when necessary. They learn how to make and keep friends and how to compromise.During play, children overly learn to pass along and to follow. Some children naturally lead, while others naturally follow. Play gives them the opportunity to try out different roles and learn to lead and follow.Children in like manner learn about rules as they play. They determine when rules are neces sary and what those rules need to be. They learn when the rules are working for what they need and when the rules need to be revised. They learn to make rules and to follow rules. They may also learn the consequences for not following rules.Academics are also learned through play. As young children adopt in play, they reinforce learned skills and are exposed to new skills. While playing store, they make lists, draw up numbers, add numbers, try out calculators, read store advertisements and get exposure to percents. They also sort and list money. It is the teachers responsibility to ensure that young learners have the necessary and appropriate props and supplies to amply carry out a play scenario.Young students also have the opportunity to act as both teacher and learner during play. Academic skills are reinforced when students have the chance to teach the skills to others. Students also learn from one another.In conclusion, play gives students authentic opportunities to learn an d practice.
Monday, April 29, 2019
Trends in Technology - Assignment ExampleBroadly, games are categorized into games that are digital and uses the latest technology, those that are non digital and further division places digital games into two sub-groups (Johnson et al.,2014) Those that are digital but do non involve many players and those that are digital and at the same time involve many players who rub down together.Games in the learning environment has been found to yield positive outcomes as players do not just now develop social skills through there their interaction but also enhance their competitive skills when they involve in Massive Multiplayer Online games which extensively challenge them when they play with their peers. Technology therefore is of great significance in this change that the education sector anticipates. The game-based learning is embedded on the conception that play is a major(ip) factor in all-round learning and with the development of technology more sophisticated games are pass jud gment to be identified (Johnson, et al,
Sunday, April 28, 2019
Financial Strategy - Essay ExampleHowever, it should not be forgotten that todays business environment is highly competitive, unpredictable, unstructured and complex therefore, only fittest and stronger firms having proactive onrush could survive in contemporary business outlook. Proactive approach is actually about sensing problems before hand and devise alternate solutions / strategies to avert damage in upcoming future. In addition, the proactive approach also refers to ambit trends in the industry or marketplace through product development, quality maintenance, innovation, branding and differentiation strategies. It should be highlighted that business is all about taking risks. An entrepreneur identifies the gaps and opportunities in the market after which risks ones resources to capitalise them for pay generation and monetary gains. Risks atomic number 18 identified, evaluated and measured through quantitative tools and statistical methods so that the strategic planners wou ld gain a near-to-accurate insight over the potential scope in any unique(predicate) industry (Lynch, 2008) (Emmison & Smith, 2002) (Johnson & Scholes, 2008). In other words, if all perceived risks are not evaluated and measured correctly therefore the probability of business failure and financial losses will be higher. For instance, if the risks associated with any business are high then investors also expect high rate of return because of effort and risk involved. This style that it is difficult to enter in a risky field and industries (more barriers) because of greater probability of losses and starting time chance of survival however, the success of an entrepreneur in a riskier venture would entitle him / her to high profit margins and financial benefits (Beasley et al, 2005). As mentioned before that the organisations are operational in a highly complex and incertain business environment therefore, there is immense need of risk soul because even small mistakes and blunder s may lead to adverse consequences. I would, thus, agree with this statement that a firms risk consciousness governs the underlying strategies that are employed by the enterprise. Risk consciousness, in simple words, refers to paying serious help to identify any small and large risks associated in backdrop up a new business, expanding an active firm (in either domestic or foreign markets), introducing a new product, innovating an existing product range, getting diversified businesses, shifting from debt to equity financing and others etc (Neale & Haslam, 1994). Nonetheless, risk consciousness takes place when top management / indemnity makers implement measures that would help instilling risk management culture within a corporate setting (Glen, 2007). In fact, the more prudent, judicious, efficient and calculated the strategic planners are in determining, assessing, measuring and communicating risks with their subordinates and organisational members, the more effectively risk management culture and risk consciousness could be developed and utilize with the support of chief risk officers (Lam, 2000) (Colquitt et al, 1999) (Bender & Ward, 2002). In addition, the firms that are not risk conscious face situations in which problems have to be tackled immediately when they occur due to absence of proactive risk management approach and contingency plans. Obviously, this leads to nothing but inefficiencies and losses in the short run that could have been avoided
Saturday, April 27, 2019
My Experiences As a Nursing Student Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words - 11
My Experiences As a Nursing Student - Essay ExampleHowever, any(prenominal) medical professional can execute the surgical single-valued function as long as he or she follows the protocols of medical operations (Callara, L. 2008, 57). The criterion (protocol) that must be followed, starts with checking the absence seizure of possible air leaks into the bottle of a chest drain. Air leaks are usually noted when a patient breathes out using tie or coughing with vigor, unlike regulation exhalation. Secondly, a check-up for the fluid volume into the chest drains to establish if it is normal or low follows. If it minimal, say, 10ml per hour, chest drain is usually present (Daly, J. Speedy, S. & Jackson, D. 2009, 68). The establishments of a respiratory difficulty to a fault define that there is a chest drain problem. Similarly, an increased bleeding risk that is associated with a strike in coagulation also shows that there is a chest drain. Having established the explained steps, evid ence from radiology for the absence of air or accumulation of fluid in the chest will be required out front the removal of chest drain process begins (Jacob, A. & Sonali, J. 2007, 29).My work in the whole chest drain process was to prepare the equipment used for the procedure and care for the patient since before and after the procedure, the patient is put to a lower place a closed chest underwater seal that drains air and fluids to enhance the expansion of lungs (Basford, L. & Slevin, O. 2003, 39). The equipment I inclined(p) for the doctor to carry out the procedure was a sterile dressing pack, gloves, stitch cutter, a theme for the cleansing of the skin, a clinical waste bag, a sterile swab, clamps and a dressing that is non-adherent (Quinn, F. 1998, 45). The predominant procedure is ensuring that the patient lies in an upright position to guarantee the expansion of lungs so that there is easy best drainage of air and fluids enhanced by gravity (Fagin, C. 2000, 40).
Friday, April 26, 2019
Design and Operation of Logistics Systems - Assignment fontSavings in logistics embody accrue from reduced inventory levels, making it possible to close facilities, thus, promoting centralisation of distribution. It throw out reduces the need to keep stock at many stores, thus, bringing a shift in the role of such facilities from stock keeping to distribution (Higginson & Bookbinder 2005). Management of Gerrard Laboratories was also thinking on the same(p) lines by planning to close Cologne facility not just because it could serve the Cologne warehouse customers from the Brussels plant at Belgium but because the competitor family was serving the European market with few warehouses than Gerrard Laboratories. Serving the Cologne customer base from the Brussels plant, the largest and the oldest one, from the focus and manufacturing perspective seemed more pertinent as the Brussels manufacturing plant had been producing 25 items out of the total 35 products. The given situation in dicates that it is more practicable to serve the Cologne area from the Brussels plant. From sales operations perspective also, Gerrards 90% customers had been retailers wholly 10% formed the industrial customers. Further, there was no seasonal change in the demand of the company products. Hence, it is expected that Gerrard should manage distribution to hospital customers satisfactorily from the Brussels plant. Another aim of distribution centres has been to chase to customer needs, which a great number of researchers have analysed. Increased communication and transportation have further minimised the requirement of warehouses and distribution centres (Higginson & Bookbinder 2005). Examining Gerrard on the communication and transportation parameters for client servicing, Gerrard has been handling its logistics functions on traditional practices. otherwise than its own 4 plants and 14 warehouses, it had been sharing warehousing space of 23 other grocery products and service compan ies, not wholly occupying the total offered space. So far the practice of one-shot billing system with variable woo of manufacturing coming to 80% of the total cost could be a reasonable ratio but one-year or maximum period of 2 years for contract renewal with the warehousing service providers could be the deterrent it carried the impending risk of increased inventory cost annually. Thats why Gerrard senior management had been focussing more on closing the Cologne facility (Case Study). Financially, it would be a good termination to close the Cologne warehouse as shipments from Netherland to Brussels would not be charged with any supererogatory freight rate. The new weighted-average rates for taking the goods from Brussels plant to the Cologne customers through another truckage company are quite competitive as the trucking company has expressed its desire for lessen the rates for less-than truck loads (LTL). It has offered 100 square meters of its Cologne terminal space for tr ansit depot without charging extra, which is a big plus-point. The local delivery rates for TL per case would come to 0.58 and for LTL only marginally higher. Rate for at least 40% shipped goods would be highly competitive. Gerrard would be in a station to save revenue on this count and also by getting goods delivered via the Netherland without incurring extra cost in comparison to goods delivered v
Thursday, April 25, 2019
Supply Chain Management and Logistics - Coursework Example18.104.22.168 Dont create the wheel22.214.171.124 Map out the Risk process126.96.36.199.1 Building Risk modules 244.1.4.6.2 Identify inputs and parameters244.1.4.6.3 Simulate 244.1.5 Create the plan244.1.6 Implementation254.1.7 look back and evaluation of the plan254.2 Limitations264.3 Areas of Risk Management264.3.1 Enterprise risk caution264.3.2 Risk counsel activities as applied to project worry274.4 Risk management and assembly line continuity284.5 The proposed methodology294.6 Quality Targets of the Simulation Models304.7 Gantt chart exhibit the activities against time315. Case study of AON345.1 Global risk management solutions345.1.1 Mergers & Acquisitions345.1.2 Captive Services and Alternative Risk Transfer355.1.3 Crisis Management Practice366. close40References421. IntroductionSupply Chain Management (SCM) is a technology-enabled management approach to acquire goods and services from a firms suppliers to its customers in a q uick, efficient and cost effective manner. SCM links and co-ordinates these lam among personal credit line entities across the entire value chain (Bill Detwiler). This includes material suppliers, production facility, distribution, services and customers linked together via the feed-forward stream of information and the feed-back of materials Evans, 1995.1.1Nature of studyThis project is to examine management logistics in supply chain management as it relates to the line process with the goal to produces a model for risk management. The project is descriptive in nature. It seeks to measure the types of risks manufacturing management has experiences and models used to develop resolutions. This will be accomplished using experimental simulation models. 1.2 suit for...The objective of this study is to examine management logistics in supply chain management as it relates to the pipeline process with the goal to produce a model for risk management. It also demands a holistic dispo sition of risks, assessments, and responses in supply chain management.Supply Chain Management (SCM) is a technology-enabled management approach to acquire goods and services from a firms suppliers to its customers in a quick, efficient and cost effective manner. SCM links and co-ordinates these flow among telephone circuit entities across the entire value chain (Bill Detwiler). This includes material suppliers, production facility, distribution, services and customers linked together via the feed-forward flow of information and the feed-back of materials Evans, 1995.This project is to examine management logistics in supply chain management as it relates to the business process with the goal to produces a model for risk management. The project is descriptive in nature. It seeks to quantify the types of risks manufacturing management has experiences and models used to develop resolutions. This will be accomplished using experimental simulation models.5. This project move on seeks to modify the future of risk incidence and intensity of threats or opportunities and their possible impact on business performance (Chapman and Ward, 1997).
Wednesday, April 24, 2019
Cnet report 221 - Essay ExampleThis is why Nguyen will still have tax income even if he stops creating updates for the game.I think Nguyen decided well because Flappy Bird was turning proscribed to be like Candy Crush and those other apps people lose time and slumber over. Nguyen was but doing what he thinks is morally skilful and I applaud him for choosing right over money.The article talks well-nigh how the remake of RoboCop proves that the kind of technology seen in the ikon is actually not that unreachable or fantasy-like as in the original installment of the movie. Statt shares that because the scientists of today are actually conducting experiments on controlling prosthetic limbs and a humans brain, the technological elements present in the movie are not as unreal as when the original movie came out.Statt continues to describe a few advances and milestones in science today, comparing them to some aspects of the new RoboCop. He writes, however, that creating killer robo ts like those in the movie are not that close to ingenuousness yet.Although the information in the article is amazing, it is a bit scary for me, thinking that we are close to create half humans/half robots. A future world similar to RoboCops world is dash because it lacks the sense of warmth brought by the thought of interacting with another human. Also robots have a way of malfunctioning so that can be dangerous and the world might be like that in the movie I, Robot instead.The article talks about how Apple is trying to come up with an iWatch which is not solitary(prenominal) designed to be fashionable but helpful in keep track of ones health. Apple together with important people from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, fashion designers, medical sensor wizards, sleep researchers, exercise physiologists and fitness experts is making digital health accessible to consumers.I think Apple is doing something right this time. I am glad it is using its technology to help
Tuesday, April 23, 2019
Micro economics homework - Assignment Example other comment the journalist made is that security screening should be sh atomic number 18d by the rich and the sad alike. This nonion is acceptable since childs playline companies guided by the principles of profit making by minimizing their costs and thus, they would not agree to this notion. It will be expensive to provide uniform security checks without comprising the quality of their work as a result airline3 companies wont be able to meet the needs of the rich. The best appearance to do this is by government subsidizing the services offered by these airline organizations therefore sharing costs. This will understate the operation costs of the organization resulting into equality in provision of services.The last comment is based on the government interference in making this class based discrimination formal (Lind, 1). This notion is uncalled for since the map of the government is to take care of the economic needs of its citi zens equitably. The government can mitigate the rise of discriminating policies in relation to security checks by initiating price control measures in the provision of such services for the aim of preventing exploitation of the rich through exorbitant air fares and reduction of class based air travel. However, this move is likely to fail beca persona the American State has a liberal economy where the market determines the prices of goods and services. on that point are a variety of reasons as to why the airlines offer priority based on frequency of flying, and one major reason is to improve its profits. Airline companies dont care a souls age cluster, femininity or disabilities their driving factor is the ability of a person to use their services. Therefore they offer incentives with the aim of retaining their clients. By offering priority of its clients through their frequency of flying, the airline companies are practicing the principles of absolute
Monday, April 22, 2019
savings bank of America - Assignment lawsuitMBNA is the largest player in the credit industry worldwide. By acquiring MBNA, the Board of Bank of America would be able o acquire a majority market parcel of land of 20.2% in the $1.2 trillion credit scorecard argumentation. For this reason, the Board of America has taken a strategic end to buy out MBNA for $35 billion. The advantages of the acquisition include access to a large share of the worldwide credit card markets (Kumar, 2012, p.37). The Bank of America could identify use of its large network of 5800 branches in the US for providing financial services. The customer portfolio of MBNA besides comp erects of low risk borrowers which would be advantageous for the bank of America. The buyout also involves certain disadvantages. The buy out decision of MBNA has come at a time when the credit card market is concentrated and there is a turn-around in the consumer behavior in the credit cards industry. Thus the growth prospects o f venturing into the credit card business are likely to be decided with time. ... Considering the slow down of the credit card business, the shareholders would still stick out the bank to leverage on the resources of MBNA. The shareholders view this buyout to have been taken place at a high value than the market price. The acquisition of MBNA by the Bank of America would tend to kill the competition in the market and the Bank of America would increase its market share. The vigorous strategies of American Express by persuading banks to appreciate customers to use their credit cards could also be challenged and the Bank of America is likely to move to the higher(prenominal) position in terms of market capitalization (WetFeet, 2008, p.46). An increase in the gamut of financial services would make the shareholders believe that the company is looking to expand its operations and the volume of revenues and earnings would also tend to increase. A high earning for the Bank of America aft er the buyout and exploring the potentials of the credit card business would mean that the earnings per share for the shareholders would increase. The dividend payout of the bank is also likely to increase and it is viewed positively by the shareholders. The shareholders also foresee a rise in valuation of the shares due to the strategic buyout of MBNA by the Bank of America (Kunitzky, 2010, p.78). Perspective of the shareholders of MBNA The shareholders of MBNA were supposed to be skeptical about the future of business of credit cards of MBNA. This is due to the facts that the credit market has saturated at this point of time and there is change in the consumer behavior in the credit card industry. Due to huge competition in the credit card market, the consumers expect a term of
The corporate communications function of Microsoft - show ExampleThe firm that is analyzed in the paper is Microsoft as one of the largest and most well-known selective information technology companies in the world. Its internal and external communicatory strategies have been analyzed to uncover how the company has been commensurate to generate value for itself and also for its stakeholders. The study has revealed that the organizational communication plays a vital role in the success of a company. The internal communication comprises of the interaction among the employees and staff and the external communication includes the communication with the customers and noted external stakeholders like the investors. The company has improved its internal communication by incorporating advanced telecommunication technologies to nearly bring the employees together who are separated by national borders. It has been found that the communicational strategies incorporated by the company have helped to develop team work, productivity, and efficiency. The external communicational strategies of the company include its marketing communications and promotional campaigns. Microsoft has developed its advertisements to highlight the brand image of the company and to create customer awareness round its products. It has leveraged its financial prowess to develop robust promotional campaigns. Finally, it has been concluded that the company has successfully designed its communicational process to increase its value generation and it has been recommended that in order to further improve them, it should adopt an combine marketing strategy and adopt content localization.
Sunday, April 21, 2019
Refletion - Essay shellI intend to join college to continue with my career goals. I believe that the appropriate use of numerical coding practices will play a key eccentric in my success Application of lift out practices will assist me in my research project in college i.e. when do data analysis, when completing numerical formula among others. I will also continue using coding practices in my University while performing data analysis or when tackling certain mathematical problems.In other classes i.e. Chemistry classes and Physics lessons, I apply mathematical formulas to complete certain tasks Mathematical coding has played a key role in assisting me to complete these problems as well as instances of data analysis.The most important practice in mathematical coding is ensuring that it meets the recommended coding standards, which may involve asking questions such as Is the coding placement efficient? Is the coding practice usable, maintainable and dependable? This is important b ecause it ensures that a lot of time is pointless by using inefficient coding practices that may lead to generation of inaccurate
Saturday, April 20, 2019
EIC and new substances of waging war - question Paper ExampleGrotius the VOC jurist The VOC was formed as a private company whose main send was to counteract the dominance of Lusitanian interests in the East and West Indies region, as well as stone pit Spanish interests in the ongoing conflict between the Dutch and the Spaniards. Grotius was appointed by the VOC Company as an advocate to champion the freedom of navigation and free access to markets that were under the strict control of the Portuguese.3 He conducted a campaign whose main aims were to legitimize the operations of the VOC as a body interested in fighting for free get by, the abolition of monopoly, and freedom of navigation in the East Indies waters all of which the Portuguese were not willing to accept.4 The primary purpose in founding the VOC was so that it could anchor Dutch interests in the East Indies by moving fast to take advantage of lucrative trade routes that were under curse from British Imperial mercha nts. ... ket requirements.5 As a young philosopher, Grotius laid the foundation for a new accord of international law and Just War Theory that formed the basis for Dutch arguments towards the legality of their operations in the East Indies. For example, in 1609, Grotius anonymously published Mare Liberum, or the Freedom of the Seas, which was a way to declare war outside the European continent mainly driven by low benefit from the West Indies trade, and increasing competition from the English.6 As the main VOC jurist, Grotius advocated for the legitimization of the actions and operations of the VOC, arguing that they were legal and moral. For example, on the number of extradition, Grotius argued that all nations had the natural right and duty to either extradite or punish malefactors.7 Moreover, Grotius held that subjects of the United Netherlands had a right to sail and trade in the East Indies.8 This challenged Portuguese, Spanish, and English interests in the East Indies. Main ly, this was argued on the rule that every nation had the right to trade with any nation it pleases.9 Moreover, Grotius argued that the Portuguese and Spanish did not ease up sovereignty over the areas they occupied in the East Indies. Hence to deny the Dutch any trade rights or the rights to passage would be absurd and unjust. This paved the way for increased competition and conflict in the East Indies amongst the European powers. In February 1603, the VOC seized the Portuguese vessel Santa Catarina along the Singapore coast, on the pretext that Portuguese merchants had aggrieved Dutch vessels, and therefore seizing the ship was justified as a form of reparation.10 Grotius argued that the Portuguese had denied the Dutch the natural right of access and trade in Asian markets, that the
Friday, April 19, 2019
Law Task - Essay utilisationThe third element to be used by shot glass on building his case is that eyepatch Frankie was taking his ipod, he used violence or curse to violence. To consider the concept of threat, the law makes speech pattern on presence. The property must be in the presence of the victim so that it may be proven that in deed the victim was in apposition of defending his property were it not that violence was used or threat to the violence was used, then the victim would have been in a position to defend the property. 2In this case Jigger was with his property, which means that had it not been that Frankie used threat to violence, he would not have given away his ipod. It should be noted that the concept violence, needs not physical fault or physical contact being made. Had it been that Frankie grabbed the ipod from Jiggers hand, then the court would be able to charge Frankie with looting with violence.The case of against Frankie falls under two circumstances. W hile Frankie would argue that he only hit Jigger after he had taken the ipod, Jigger would argue that at the point of taking of the ipod, Frankie had used threat in the case he did not cooperate. At this point, the case of robbery shall have been built strongly. In the next instance, Jigger would file for the case against Frankie to be just violence. There is no certainty that the bring through of violence directed to Jigger by Frankie was to facilitate the taking of Jiggers property. This is because by the metre violence was being committed, Frankie already had the ipod. Jigger therefore must file the violence case against Frankie break down from the robbery
Thursday, April 18, 2019
Economic naturalist - Essay ExampleThis is the reason for what the movies picture in past were on the specific stream, heroism was the most popular theme. With the passage of time, after ultra measures were taken in Hollywood arna, the scenario was turned towards new altitudes.History observed that the demand of female bewilders was cosmos increased, might be it was deliberately. But now it is uncontrollable. The concept of feminism has been popularized enough that even an advertisement of prat is found incomplete without a female model. The most tax paying celebrities in advertisement pains are of course none others but female models.The economic perspective which supports this practical phenomenon and being provisioned by the experts is demand and supply combination. It is probably due to high demand of female models in Hollywood as compared to male category of models. However it slightly differs in case of acting and modeling. In modeling, this is most important that a lea ding female model should be in the package. It is for image management.The demand of leading and fortunate female models is high whereas the male models are lesser in number but the ones who are in the fields no doubt they are leading and money takers. But the overall budget and per bun rate is found higher in female models category.The revenue and success rate of the advertisements in which women models slang performed is high and are having decidedly cited records. People have favorites in commercials where they find a female model performing for some brand. The influencing rate is more. It is recognized that the brands which are endorsed by leading female models get advertise earlier even the standard is not that much extraordinary.Another very important factor in high cost female models is that they have to spend more money on their personal maintenance. They are required to wear expensive clothes, jewelry and other accessories in order to retain their persona. This
Wednesday, April 17, 2019
Making solar Energy Economical - analyze ExampleWith the realization of this inefficiency, current manu pointurers are manufacturing solar cells with an improved efficiency through laying the cells into multi-layers that has the might to push the efficiency to about 35%. Using nanotechnology, engineering of solar aptitude generation devices fecal matter sire structures on sizes that are comparable to molecules and atoms that are measured in nanometers whereby nanocrystals from the elements selenium and lead are utilized (Beard et al. 2506). The technology improves the inadequacy presented by standard cells that produce use slight excess heat and less impact while the Lead-Selenium nanocrystals release further electrons rather than heat thus boosting the output, which can also be replicated in Silicon. With the use of nanocrystals technology, the efficiency of the generation of solar dynamism can use efficiencies of up to 60% and therefore engineering technologies are petition d to integrate nanocrystal cells in transmitting energy in a circuit (Beard et al. 2512). How to Make Solar Energy Economical The use of new materials for solar cells can function in the reduction of fictionalization be that has a positive impact in reducing the costs of solar energy and fashioning its implementation for generation of electrical energy economical (Lewis 799). The purity of the material is important, as modern solar cell designs require higher purity content in order to make the flow of electric charges be seamless. To achieve this, bers go out be required to use thick materials in one dimension to absorb sunlight and thinner materials in an other(a) direction to transmit the charges which would require that the solar cells are made of nanorods or tiny...This essay outlines the growing importance of the solar energy among other sources and determines the factors, that will ensure larger electrical generation based on solar energy conversion.Solar power is usual ly generated by collecting the light spectrums from sunlight and converting them to energy in the form of electricity using solar panels that have cells in them. Solar energy forms an integral part of the supply of energy to human beings and the earth in general. The contribution of the sun to the energy requirements of the earth is substantial despite the fact that it has not been taken up by most people and forms only a fraction of the energy consumption market.In order to make solar energy economically competitive, there is need for those tasked with the manufacture of solar technology devices to improve the efficiency of the cells in commercial solar cells as well as lower their costs of manufacture. The use of new materials for solar cells can help in the reduction of fabrication costs that has a positive impact in reducing the costs of solar energy and making its implementation for generation of electricity economicalDespite the fact that technology may help in the production of solar cells that generate cheap and efficient electricity, it would be uneconomical if the solar energy generated is not stored. The need for storage of electricity generated from solar has been necessitated by the fact that not all the days will the earth receive sunlight as this may be blocked by clouds or shadow at night.
Tuesday, April 16, 2019
Li controling in nonliterate societies Essay cultivation, History of, theories, methods, and administration of take aims and an early(a)(prenominal) agencies of information from antique times to the present. tuition positive from the homo struggle for survival and enlightenment. It may be formal or informal. Informal pedagogy refers to the general complaisant process by which gay beings acquire the knowledge and skills postuformer(a) to function in their culture. Formal precept refers to the process by which t all(prenominal)ers instruct students in courses of t apiece within institutions.Before the invention of reading and writing, throng lived in an environment in which they struggled to survive against inwrought rides, animals, and separate pityings. To survive, preliterate quite a little developed skills that grew into ethnic and educational patterns. For a particular groups culture to continue into the coming(prenominal), slew had to transmit it, or pas s it on, from adults to children. The earliest educational processes involved sharing information about gathering food and providing comfort making weapons and other tools learning language and acquiring the values, behavior, and religious rites or implements of a given culture. finished direct, informal education, parents, elders, and priests taught children the skills and roles they would need as adults. These lessons eventually formed the moral codes that governed behavior. Since they lived before the invention of writing, preliterate hoi polloi used an oral tradition, or story telling, to pass on their culture and history from one multiplication to the next. By using language, bulk well-read to create and use symbols, words, or signs to ex put forward their ideas. When these symbols grew into pictographs and letters, human beings created a written language and made the capacious cultural leap to literacy.IIIEDUCATION IN ANCIENT AFRICA AND ASIA In ancient Egypt, which flo urished from about 3000 BC to about 500 BC, priests in temple trails taught not only religion just now also the principles of writing, the sciences, mathematics, and architecture. Similarly in India, priests conducted well-nigh of the formal education. Beginning in about 1200 BC Indian priests taught the principles of the Veda, the sacred texts of Hinduism, as well as science, grammar, and philosophy. Formal education in China dates to about 2000 BC, though it thrived specially during the Eastern Zhou Dynasty, from 770 to 256 BC (see China The Eastern Zhou).The curriculum stressed philosophy, poetry, and religion, in dispense with the teachings of Confucius, Laozi (Lao-tzu), and other philosophers. IVEDUCATION IN ANCIENT GREECE Historians defend looked to ancient Greece as one of the origins of Western formal education. The Iliad and the Odyssey, grand poems attributed to Homer and written sometime in the 8th century BC, created a cultural tradition that gave the Greeks a s ense of group identity. In their dramatic account of Greek struggles, Homers epics served important educational purposes.The legendary Greek warriors depicted in Homers work, such(prenominal)(prenominal) as Agamemnon, Odysseus, and Achilles, were heroes who served as copys for the youthfulness Greeks. Ancient Greece was divided into subtle and frequently competing city-states, or poleis, such as capital of Greece, Sparta, and Thebes. Athens exclamatory a humane and democratic society and education, but only about one- terce of the people in Athens were free citizens. Slaves and residents from other countries or city-states made up the rest of the population. Only the sons of free citizens tended to(p) school.The Athenians believed a free man should have a progressive tense education in order to perform his polite duties and for his own someoneal development. The education of women depended upon the customs of the particular Greek city-state. In Athens, where women had no l egal or economic rights, most women did not attend school. nearly girls, however, were educated at home by tutors. Slaves and other noncitizens had either no formal education or very little. Sparta, the chief governmental enemy of Athens, was a dictatorship that used education for military educate and drill.In contrast to Athens, Spartan girls received much schooling but it was almost exclusively athletic development to prepare them to be healthy mothers of future Spartan soldiers. In the 400s BC, the Sophists, a group of wandering teachers, began to teach in Athens. The Sophists claimed that they could teach any melodic theme or skill to anyone who wished to learn it. They specialized in teaching grammar, logic, and rhetoric, subjects that eventually formed the core of the liberal arts.The Sophists were more than interested in preparing their students to argue persuasively and winarguments than in teaching principles of truth and morality. different the Sophists, the Gree k philosopher Socrates sought to discover and teach universal principles of truth, beauty, and goodness.Socrates, who died in 399 BC, claimed that true knowledge existed within everyone and needed to be brought to consciousness. His educational method, called the Socratic method, consisted of asking probing questions that forced his students to think deeply about the heart and soul of life, truth, and justice. In 387 BC Plato, who had studied down the stairs Socrates, established a school in Athens called the Academy.Plato believed in an unchanging world of perfect ideas or universal concepts. He asserted that since true knowledge is the akin in every place at every time, education, like truth, should be unchanging. Plato described his educational perfect in the Republic, one of the most notable works of Western philosophy. Platos Republic describes a model society, or republic, ruled by highly intelligent philosopher-kings. Warriors seduce up the republics countenance class o f people. The lowest class, the workers, provide food and the other products for all the people of the republic.In Platos archetype educational system, each class would receive a different kind of instruction to prepare for their various(a) roles in society. In 335 BC Platos student, Aristotle, put togethered his own school in Athens called the Lyceum. Believing that human beings are essentially rational, Aristotle thought people could discover natural laws that governed the universe and then hunt these laws in their lives. He also concluded that educated people who used reason to make decisions would lead a life of moderation in which they avoided dangerous extremes.In the 4th century BC Greek orator Isocrates developed a method of education knowing to prepare students to be competent orators who could serve as government officials. Isocratess students studied rhetoric, politics, ethics, and history.They examined model orations and practiced public speaking. Isocratess method s of education directly influenced such roman letters educational theorists as Cicero and Quintilian. VEDUCATION IN ANCIENT ROME While the Greeks were developing their civilization in the areas surrounding the eastern Mediterranean Sea, the Romans were gaining control of the Italian peninsula and areas of the western Mediterranean.The Greeks education focused on the study of philosophy. The Romans, on the other hand, were preoccupied with war, conquest, politics, and civil administration. As in Greece, only a minority of Romans attended school. Schooling was for those who had the money to pay tuition and the time to attend classes. While girls from wealthy families occasionally acquire to read and write at home, boys attended a special school, called aludus. In utility(prenominal) schools boys studied Latin and Greek grammar taught by Greek slaves, called pedagogues.After uncomplicated and secondary school, wealthy young men often attended schools of rhetoric or oratory that pr epared them to be leadership in government and administration. Cicero, a initiatory century BC Roman senator, combined Greek and Roman ideas on how to educate orators in his book De Oratore. Like Isocrates, Cicero believed orators should be educated in liberal arts subjects such as grammar, rhetoric, logic, mathematics, and astronomy. He also asserted that they should study ethics, military science, natural science, geography, history, and law.Quintilian, an important Roman educator who lived in the 1st century AD, wrote that education should be based on the stages of individual development from childhood to adulthood. Quintilian devised specific lessons for each stage. He also advised teachers to make their lessons suited to the students readiness and ability to learn bran-new material. He urged teachers to motivate students by making learning interesting and attractive. VIANCIENT JEWISH EDUCATION Education among the Jewish people also had a profound influence on Western learnin g.The ancient Jews had great respect for the printed word and believed that God revealed truth to them in the Bible. Most information on ancient Jewish goals and methods of education comes from the Bible and the Talmud, a book of religious and civil law. Jewish religious leaders, known as rabbis, advised parents to teach their children religious beliefs, law, ethical practices, and vocational skills. Both boys and girls were introduced to religion by studying the Torah, the most sacred document of Judaism. Rabbis taught in schools within synagogues, places of worship and religious study.VIIMEDIEVAL EDUCATIONDuring the Middle Ages, or the mediaeval period, which lasted roughly from the 5th to the 15th century, Western society and education were heavily shaped by Christianity, particularly the Roman Catholic Church. The Church operated parish, chapel, and monastery schools at the elementary level. Schools in monasteries and cathedrals offered secondary education. Much of the teaching in these schools was directed at learning Latin, the old Roman language used by the church in its ceremonies and teachings. The church provided some particular(a) opportunities for the education of women in religious communities or convents.Convents had libraries and schools to help prepare nuns to follow the religious rules of their communities. Merchant and craft guilds also maintained some schools that provided basic education and training in specific crafts. Knights received training in military tactics and the code of chivalry. As in the Greek and Roman eras, only a minority of people went to school during the chivalrous period. Schools were attended primarily by persons planning to enter religious life such as priests, monks, or nuns. The vast majority of people were serfs who served as agricultural workers on the estates of feudal lords.The serfs, who did not attend school, were generally illiterate (see Serfdom). In the tenth and early eleventh centuries, Arabic learning had a pronounced influence on Western education. From meeting with Arab scholars in North Africa and Spain, Western educators learned new ship canal of thinking about mathematics, natural science, medicine, and philosophy. The Arabic number system was in particular important, and became the foundation of Western arithmetic. Arab scholars also preserved and translated into Arabic the works of such influential Greek scholars as Aristotle, Euclid, Galen, and Ptolemy.Because many of these works had disappeared from Europe by the Middle Ages, they might have been lost forever if Arab scholars such as Avicenna and Averroes had not preserved them. In the 11th century medieval scholars developed scholasticism, a philosophical and educational movement that used both human reason and revelations from the Bible. Upon encountering the works of Aristotle and other Greek philosophers from Arab scholars, the Scholastics attempted to reconcile Christian theology with Greek philosophy.Scholastici sm reached its high point in the Summa Theologiae of Saint Thomas Aquinas, a 13th century Dominican theologist who taught at the University of Paris. Aquinas reconciled the authority of religious faith, represented by the Scriptures, with Greek reason, represented by Aristotle. Aquinas described the teachers vocation as one that combines faith, love, and learning. The work of Aquinas and other Scholastics took place in the medieval institutions of higher education, the universities.The famous European universities of Paris, Salerno, Bologna, Oxford, Cambridge, and Padua grew out of the Scholastics-led intellectual revival of the twelfth and 13th centuries. The name university comes from the Latin word universitas, or associations, in reference to the associations that students and teachers organized to discuss schoolman issues. Medieval universities offered degrees in the liberal arts and in professional studies such as theology, law, and medicine. VIIIEDUCATION DURING THE RENAISS ANCE The Renaissance, or rebirth of learning, began in Europe in the 14th century and reached its height in the 15th century.Scholars became more interested in the humanist featuresthat is, the secular or worldly rather than the religious aspectsof the Greek and Latin classics. Humanist educators found their models of literary style in the classics. The Renaissance was a particularly powerful force in Italy, most notably in art, literature, and architecture. In literature, the works of such Italian writers as Dante Aleghieri, Petrarch, and Giovanni Boccaccio became in particular important. Humanist educators designed teaching methods to prepare well-rounded, liberally educated persons.Dutch humanist Desiderius Erasmus was particularly influential. Erasmus believed that accord and conversing about the meaning of literature was more important than memorizing it, as had been required at many of the medieval religious schools. He advised teachers to study such fields as archaeology, a stronomy, mythology, history, and Scripture. The invention of the printing press in the mid-15th century made books more widely getable and increased literacy rates (see Printing). But school attendance did not increase greatly during the Renaissance.Elementary schools educated essence-class children while lower-class children received little, if any, formal schooling. Children of the nobility and upper classes attended humanist secondary schools. Educational opportunities for women improved slightly during the Renaissance, especially for the upper classes. Some girls from wealthy families attended schools of the royal court or received private lessons at home. The curriculum studied by young women was still based on the belief that only certain subjects, such as art, music, needlework, dancing, and poetry, were suited for females.For working-class girls, especially rural peasants, education was still limited to training in household duties such as cooking and sewing. IXEDUCATION DURING THE PROTESTANT REFORMATION The religious Reformation of the sixteenth century marked a decline in the authority of the Catholic Church and contributed to the emergence of the middle classes in Europe. Protestant religious reformers, such as John Calvin, Martin Luther, and Huldreich Zwingli, rejected the authority of the Catholic pontiff and created reformed Christian, or Protestant, churches.In their ardent determination to instruct followers to read the Bible in their native language, reformers extended literacy to the masses. They established vernacular primary schools that offered a basic curriculum of reading, writing, arithmetic, and religion for children in their own language. Vernacular schools in England, for example, used English to teach their pupils. As they argued with each other and with the Roman Catholics on religious matters, Protestant educators wrote catechismsprimary books that summarized their religious doctrinein a question and rejoinder format.While th e vernacular schools educated both boys and girls at the primary level, tweedy boys attended preparatory and secondary schools that continued to emphasize Latin and Greek. The gymnasium in Germany, the Latin grammar school in England, and the lycee in France were preparatory schools that taught young men the classical languages of Latin and Greek required to enter universities. Martin Luther believed the state, family, and school, along with the church, were leaders of the Reformation. Since the family shaped childrens character, Luther encouraged parents to teach their children reading and religion.Each family should pray together, read the Bible, study the catechism, and practice a useful trade. Luther believed that government should assist schools in educating literate, productive, and religious citizens. One of Luthers colleagues, German religious reformer Melanchthon, wrote the school code for the German region of Wurttemberg, which became a model for other regions of Germany and influenced education passim Europe. According to this code, the government was responsible for supervising schools and licensing teachers.The Protestant reformers retained the dual-class school system that had developed in the Renaissance. Vernacular schools provided primary instruction for the lower classes, and the various classical humanist and Latin grammar schools prepared upper-class males for higher education. XEDUCATIONAL THEORY IN THE 17TH CENTURY Educators of the 17th century developed new ways of thinking about education. Czech education reformer Jan Komensky, known as Comenius, was particularly influential. A bishop of the Moravian Church, Comenius escape religious persecution by taking refuge in Poland, Hungary, Sweden, and The Netherlands.He created a new educational philosophy called Pansophism, or universal knowledge, designed to pack about worldwide pull ining and peace. Comenius advised teachers to use childrens senses rather than memorization in instruction . To make learning interesting for children, he wrote The Gate of Tongues Unlocked (1631), a book for teaching Latin in the students own language. He also wrote Orbis Sensualium Pictus (1658 The indubitable World in Pictures, 1659) consisting of illustrations that labeled objects in both their Latin and vernacular names. It was one of the first illustrated books written especially for children.The work of English philosopher John Locke influenced education in Britain and North America. Locke examined how people acquire ideas in An Essay Concerning Human Understanding (1690). He asserted that at birth the human mind is a blank slate, or tabula rasa, and empty of ideas. We acquire knowledge, he argued, from the information about the objects in the world that our senses bring to us. We arrest with simple ideas and then combine them into more complicated ones. Locke believed that individuals acquire knowledge most well when they first consider simple ideas and then gradually combine them into more complex ones.In Some Thoughts Concerning Education (1697), Locke recommended practical learning to prepare people to manage their social, economic, and political affairs efficiently. He believed that a sound education began in early childhood and insisted that the teaching of reading, writing, and arithmetic be gradual and cumulative. Lockes curriculum included conversational learning of foreign languages, especially French, mathematics, history, physical education, and games. XIEDUCATION DURING THE ENLIGHTENMENT The Age of enlightenment in the 18th century produced important changes in education and educational possible action.During the Enlightenment, also called the Age of Reason, educators believed people could improve their lives and society by using their reason, their powers of critical thinking. The Enlightenments ideas had a significant seismic disturbance on the American Revolution (1775-1783) and early educational policy in the fall in States. In parti cular, American philosopher and scientist Benjamin Franklin emphasized the value of utilitarian and scientific education in American schools. Thomas Jefferson, the third president of the get together States, stressed the importance of civic education to the citizens of a democratic nation.The Enlightenment principles that considered education as an instrument of social reform and improvement remain fundamental characteristics of American education policy. XIIEDUCATION IN THE 19TH CENTURY The foundations of modern education were established in the nineteenth century. Swiss educator Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi, inspired by the work of French philosopher Jean Jacques Rousseau, developed an educational method based on the natural world and the senses. Pestalozzi established schools in Switzerland and Germany to educate children and train teachers.He affirmed that schools should resemble secure and love homes. Like Locke and Rousseau, Pestalozzi believed that thought began with sensatio n and that teaching should use the senses. Holding that children should study the objects in their natural environment, Pestalozzi developed a so-called object lesson that involved exercises in learning form, number, and language. Pupils determined and traced an objects form, counted objects, and named them. Students progressed from these lessons to exercises in drawing, writing, adding, subtracting, multiplying, dividing, and reading.Pestalozzi employed the following principles in teaching (1) begin with the concrete object before introducing abstract concepts (2) begin with the immediate environment before dealing with what is distant and remote (3) begin with easy exercises before introducing complex ones and (4) always proceed gradually, cumulatively, and belatedly. American educator Henry Barnard, the first U. S. Commissioner of Education, introduced Pestalozzis ideas to the United States in the late 19th century. Barnard also worked for the establishment of free public high s chools for students of all classes of American society.German philosopher Johann Herbart emphasized moral education and designed a highly structured teaching technique. Maintaining that educations primary goal is moral development, Herbart claimed good character rested on knowledge while misconduct resulted from an unretentive education. Knowledge, he said, should create an apperceptive massa network of ideasin a persons mind to which new ideas can be added. He wanted to include history, geography, and literature in the school curriculum as well as reading, writing, and arithmetic.Based on his work, Herbarts followers designed a five-step teaching method (1) prepare the pupils to be ready for the new lesson, (2) present the new lesson, (3) associate the new lesson with ideas studied earlier, (4) use examples to illustrate the lessons major points, and (5) test pupils to ensure they had learned the new lesson. AKindergarten German educator Friedrich Froebel created the earliest kind ergarten, a form of preschool education that literally means childs garden in German. Froebel, who had an unhappy childhood, urged teachers to think back to their own childhoods to find insights they could use in their teaching.Froebel studied at Pestalozzis institute in Yverdon, Switzerland, from 1808 to 1810. While agreeing with Pestalozzis emphasis on the natural world, a social school atmosphere, and the object lesson, Froebel felt that Pestalozzis method was not philosophical enough. Froebel believed that every childs inner self contained a spiritual essencea spark of divine energythat enabled a child to learn independently. In 1837 Froebel opened a kindergarten in Blankenburg with a curriculum that featured songs, stories, games, gifts, and occupations.The songs and stories affect the imaginations of children and introduced them to folk heroes and cultural values. Games developed childrens social and physical skills. By playing with each other, children learned to get in in a group. Froebels gifts, including such objects as spheres, cubes, and cylinders, were designed to enable the child to understand the concept that the object represented. Occupations consisted of materials children could use in building activities. For example, clay, sand, card menu, and sticks could be used to build castles, cities, and mountains.Immigrants from Germany brought the kindergarten concept to the United States, where it became part of the American school system. Margarethe Meyer Schurz opened a German-language kindergarten in Watertown, Wisconsin, in 1855. Elizabeth Peabody established an English-language kindergarten and a training school for kindergarten teachers in Boston, Massachusetts, in 1860. William Torrey Harris, superintendent of schools in St. Louis, Missouri, and later a U. S. commissioner of education, made the kindergarten part of the American public school system.BSocial DarwinismBritish sociologist Herbert Spencer strongly influenced education in the m id-19th century with social theories based on the theory of evolution developed by British naturalist Charles Darwin. Spencer revised Darwins biological theory into social Darwinism, a body of ideas that applied the theory of evolution to society, politics, the economy, and education. Spencer maintained that in modern industrialised societies, as in earlier simpler societies, the fittest individuals of each generation survived because they were intelligent and adaptable. Competition caused the brightest and strongest individuals to climb to the top of the society. advise unlimited competition, Spencer wanted government to restrict its activities to the bare minimum. He opposed public schools, claiming that they would create a monopoly for mediocrity by catering to students of low ability. He wanted private schools to compete against each other in trying to attract the brightest students and most capable teachers. Spencers social Darwinism became very popular in the last half of the 19th century when industrialization was changing American and Western European societies. Spencer believed that people in industrialized society needed scientific rather than classical education.Emphasizing education in practical skills, he advocated a curriculum featuring lessons in five basic human activities (1) those needed for self-preservation such as health, diet, and exercise (2) those needed to perform ones occupation so that a person can earn a living, including the basic skills of reading, writing, computation, and knowledge of the sciences (3) those needed for parenting, to raise children properly (4) those needed to participate in society and politics and (5) those needed for leisure and recreation. Spencers ideas on education were eagerly recognized in the United States.In 1918 the Cardinal Principles of Secondary Education, a report issued by the National Education Association, used Spencers list of activities in its recommendations for American education. XIIINATIO NAL SYSTEMS OF EDUCATION In the 19th century, governments in the United Kingdom, Germany, France, Italy, and other European countries organized national systems of public education. The United States, Canada, Argentina, Uruguay, and other countries in North and southwestward America also established national education systems based largely on European models. own(prenominal) the United Kingdom.The Church of England and other churches often operated primary schools in the United Kingdom, where students paid a fiddling fee to study the Bible, catechism, reading, writing, and arithmetic. In 1833 the British Parliament passed a law that gave some government currency to these schools. In 1862 the United Kingdom established a school grant system, called payment by results, in which schools received funds based on their students performance on reading, writing, and arithmetic tests. The Education Act of 1870, called the Forster Act, authorised local government boards to establish public board schools.The United Kingdom then had two schools systems board schools operated by the government and voluntary schools conducted by the churches and other private organizations. In 1878 the United Kingdom passed laws that limited child labor in factories and made it possible for more children to attend school. To make schooling available to working-class children, many schools with limited public and private funds used monitorial methods of instruction. Monitorial education, developed by British educators Joseph Lancaster and Andrew Bell, used student monitors to conduct lessons.It offered the fledgling public education system the advantage of allowing schools to hire less teachers to instruct the large number of new students. Schools featuring monitorial education used older boys, called monitors, who were more advanced in their studies, to teach younger children. Monitorial education concentrated on basic skillsreading, writing, and arithmeticthat were broken down into sma ll parts or units. After a monitor had learned a unitsuch as spelling words of two or triplet letters that began with the letter Ahe would, under the master teachers supervision, teach this unit to a group of students.By the end of the 19th century, the monitorial system was abandoned in British schools because it provided a very limited education. BIn Russia Russian tsar Alexander II initiated education reforms leading to the Education Statute of 1864. This law created zemstvos, local government units, which operated primary schools. In addition to zemstvo schools, the Russian Orthodox Church conducted parish schools. While the number of children attending school slowly increased, most of Russias population remained illiterate.Peasants often refused to send their children to school so that they could work on the farms. more boys attended school than girls since many peasant parents considered female education unnecessary. Fearing that too much education would make people discont ented with their lives, the tsars government provided only limited schooling to instill political loyalty and religious piety. CIn the United States Before the 19th century elementary and secondary education in the United States was organized on a local or regional level. Nearly all schools operated on private funds exclusively.However, start-off in the 1830s and 1840s, American educators such as Henry Barnard and Horace Mann argued for the creation of a school system operated by individual states that would provide an equal education for all American children. In 1852 Massachusetts passed the first laws calling for free public education, and by 1918 all U. S. states had passed compulsory school attendance laws. See Public Education in the United States. XIVEDUCATION IN THE TWENTIETH CENTURY At the beginning of the 20th century, the writings of Swedish feminist and educator Ellen Key influenced education around the world.Keys book Barnets arhundrade (1900 The Century of the Child,1 909) was translated into many languages and inspired so-called progressive educators in various countries. Progressive education was a system of teaching that emphasized the needs and potentials of the child, rather than the needs of society or the principles of religion. Among the influential progressive educators were Hermann Lietz and Georg Michael Kerschensteiner of Germany, Bertrand Russell of England, and Maria Montessori of Italy. AMontessoriMontessoris methods of early childhood education have become internationally popular. learn in medicine, Montessori worked with developmentally disabled children early in her career. The results of her work were so effective that she believed her teaching methods could be used to educate all children. In 1907 Montessori established a childrens school, the Casa dei Bambini (Childrens House), for poor children from the San Lorenzo regularise of Rome. Here she developed a specially prepared environment that featured materials and activitie s based on her observations of children.She found that children enjoy mastering specific skills, prefer work to play, and can sustain concentration. She also believed that children have a power to learn independently if provided a properly stimulating environment. Montessoris curriculum emphasized three major classes of activity (1) practical, (2) sensory, and (3) formal skills and studies. It introduced children to such practical activities as setting the table, serving a meal, wash drawing dishes, tying and buttoning clothing, and practicing basic social manners. Repetitive exercises developed sensory and muscular coordination.Formal skills and subjects included reading, writing, and arithmetic. Montessori designed special teaching materials to develop these skills, including laces, buttons, weights, and materials identifiable by their sound or smell. Instructors provided the materials for the children and demonstrated the lessons but allowed each child to independently learn the particular skill or behavior. In 1913 Montessori lectured in the United States on her educational method.
Monday, April 15, 2019
William Blakes history and also equal cinque opposite poesys Es assertIn my essay I provide give some fill eruptledge on William Blakes history and also comp be five different poems. The poems I go away comp be ar capital of the United Kingdom, The lamp chimney carpet carpet sweeper (Songs of Innocence) with The chimney sweeper (Songs of date). I allow also compare The birth with The tiger. I will ex copmingly the poems first and explain what I thought the poem was to the highest degree when I designate it and using this knowledge I will compare.William Blake was a profound genius to some, and a nut theatrical role to new(prenominal)s. A British poet, botherter, visionary mystic, and engraver were some of his many occupations. Born in 1757 on November 28th William was the tierce of five squirtren to a successful London hosier. William grew up in Soho, London where he was first educated at home, chiefly by his mother. From the age of 6, William Blake was am azed and intrigued by spirits nonpareils and ghosts. He saw and conversed with the angel Gabriel, the consummate(a) Mary and various other historical figures. Blake was always enclosed in his someoneal visions and always expected to be in his own world. His visions and beliefs make William the man he was and the way he is portrayed to the world to sidereal day.William was late influenced by gothic art and architecture and this generateed in his work. After finishing his apprenticeship Blake set out to sustain his living as an engraver. After studies at the Royal Academy School, Blake started to produce his own watercolors and engravings for magazines.In 1782, Blake marry Catherine Boucher, the daughter of a market gardener.Blakes animateness, except for three years at Felpham where he prepared illustrations for an stochastic variable of Cowper, was spent in London. Blakes poems were massive feasting and had urges of violent energy. They were full of power and moments of tenderness. A poem thought to be comparable this would inevitably be associated with Blake.Blake was non blinded by rules, scarcely approached his subjects wholeheartedly, with a pass non distracted by current affairs. On the other hand this do Blake an outsider. He clear of assuage love and sympathized with the actions of the cut whirlingaries entirely the reign of terror disturbed him. He believed that as altogether men are born equal, that in that location should be only one social and economic level. royal family such(prenominal) as Kings and Lords were seen as existence in a league with the d barbarous as they regarded themselves as being above other men.Blakes paintings and engravings, notably his illustrations of his own works are realistic in representing the charitable anatomy and other natural forms. However his paintings were rejected by the public as he was c eached a lunatic for his imaginative work.Blakes religious beliefs stemmed from a long traditi on in Britain of Christian dissenters whom ref utilise to assume the established church. This tradition was opposed to established religion, was suspicious of the monarchy and the role it played in religion and had long railed against corruption and abuse of power in the Church and Monarchy.Blake lived during a time of intense social change. The Ameri screw Revolution, the French Revolution, and the Industrial Revolution all(a) happened during his lifetime as well as the vicious kick to these events by the British establishment. The Revolutions left William Blake disturbed and unsure of what was happening.English poet Appelbaum said, He was liberal in politics, tenuous to the oppressive governance measures of his day, and favorably inspired by the Ameri dismissful Revolutionary War and the French Revolution (Appelbaum v).As London shows, however, Blake did not entirely approve of the measures taken to send on the causes he longed to advance London refers to how the hapless So ldiers sigh/ runs in blood down Palace walls Among many other events which took place during the French Revolution, this could possibly refer to the executions of the French royalty.William Blake died on August 12, 1827, and is buried in an unmarked grave at Bunhill Fields, London.Blake wrote Songs of Innocence and Experience in the 1790s. The main theme of the poems came from Blakes belief that children woolly-headed their innocence as they grew sure-enough(a) and were influenced by the noxious ways of the world. Blake believed that children were born irreproachable and pure tho as they grew up, they became experience as they were influenced by the beliefs and opinions of adults and others around them. When this happened they could no longer be considered innocent and pure.The poems from Songs of Innocence were written from an innocent childs perspective. The poems from Songs of Experience were written from the perspective of a more undergo person.London (Songs of Innocence) Songs of Innocence features the politically powerful poem London. Blake wandered through with(predicate) the streets of London and sees the streets and even the river suffering under political oppression. Everyone he passes, he sees signs of misery and virtuous helplessness. He notices the stateions and emotions ordinary quite a little are feeling. He doesnt sightly see the misery of the sweep, the soldier, the prostitute or the baby he also hears it in their cries, sighs and tears. He borders himself in their shoes and sees the churchs spirit blackened as the institution has allowed the fall of beliefs. He is composition some the reality of London and what the war has done to London. He does not see any life in the faces he sees as he walks, he sees faces of weakness and woe as London seems to claim been taken over. It seems even the streets and the river Thames shake been taken over by the rich, the poor people seem to be at that place for the rich peoples amusement.Fo r instance, he describes the Thames and the city streets as chartered or controlled by commercial interests. He refers to mind-forged manacles he dialog of the mens faces and their weakness, marks of woe. William is becoming increasingly scare of what the future holds as diseases are spreading and the public is becoming disillusioned about the reliability and veracity of politicians.William Blake wants to know what happened to the family that London had, when pain and misery was not the only feeling felt up. Blake feels owned, like he is a nobody, he feels he does not have the right to be him anymore. He sees the dying soldiers oddment breath as if it is blood running down the royal palace walls. Blake has never seen such an discontent era. He talks of marriage and death, which us an oxymoron as they are both opposites to add effect. Every matter natural Blake sees as owned. He has no voice to speak out, no freewill and no opinions. Even if he was to guess no one would list en. Blake is furious as he sees nature as immortals creations, Blake is angry that people seem to be owning what is not theirs.London seems to be more about society than William Blakes life but it does have an element of his childhood and how society was portrayed to him. He sees it as a struggle for everyone and how everyone puts on a front as if their emotions are locked outdoor(a). in that location is a division amid the rich and the poor and he does not see why. He does not see why the rich get priority when there are others in need more. I imply he uses his childhood to be able to acquit his feeling as a child and give a direct image of how the division of classes and placement ca utilise misery.Compared to the Chimney Sweeper London is more about society and politics and how he believes people made the wrong decisions. He because of this he has suffered and the children who are growing up will suffer too. The Chimney Sweeper is more about William Blakes childhood and ho w he was fooled by the world. It is connected to London as politics and society do come in to it. Exploitation is also a theme as in The Chimney Sweeper the little chimney sweepers are being exploited and being taken advantage of and William Blake seems to be standing up for this in London, he is standing up for the rights of everyone especially those living in poverty. He seems to want to help in both poems and make it give out. He seems like a good person who wants to speak out of the fantastic conditions because no-one else will. He speaks out by his writing he says it all in his poems so it is clearer and more effective.The poems are in comparison as they both contain elements of society, politics and the rights of a citizen or the rights William Blake believes we should have. Both talk about people in different classes who have different statuses and their rights and responsibilities they should have. theology is associated with both of these as William Blake put his combin e in to beau ideal but no one seems to be getting the life they deserve. However in these poems I dont think perfection is the only one to blame, politicians and the government seem to of had an effect on William Blake. Enough for him to speak out.The Chimney Sweeper (Songs of Innocence)William is writing this poem in the perspective of a young boy called gobbler. It is almost like William is talking of his own childhood but covering it up by using a different name. This is how William saw life when he was jr. and what he thought of what was actually happening. The child monologue of tom turkey uses an innocent perspective on what is it like for a young boy to be living in such conditions and politically drastic decisions.William uses create verbally couplets to help the poem flow with ease. He talks of young boys working, being exploited and often killed because of the terrible conditions they have to face. He intellectually uses the word weep By hiding sweep in it. He is usin g the movement the young boys had to do with the sound they made which was them weeping. I think this is a clever thing to do as it makes you think of what they had to do and how they felt about doing it. William is saying the young boys were not happy and were very scared. In the second stanza, William talks of how he actually sees gobbler and what his relationship to tom is. He talks about how little Tom Dacre cried when his head was shaved but William tries to bring pass to this and make it into a joke. William saysHush, TomNever mind it, for when your heads bare,You know that the soot cannot spoil your white vibrissa.William is assay to make Tom feel better by joking about it, and presentation how it is practical for his hair to be shaved but it is like shaving off little Toms purity and innocence. It seems Tom has lost his identity with his innocence.Tom did not like the reality of the institutions and William talks of Tom having bad dreams about the other boys who sweep the chimneys all being locked up in coffins of black. Not coffins of white but coffins of black, showing a meritless image of how bad he sees life. William uses the names Dick, Joe, Ned and Jack showing deep down they know their identity, but to others they are nobodies. This is an upsetting see of life for them, as they are so young and have their whole lives to live but honestly they cannot see the point of living. It is a terrible life all he seems to talk of is death and blackness which should not be the things on a little boys mind. Tom seems to have been blackened by the chimney soot literally and in his mind he seems to be in darkness. He can not seem to see the light anymore.There is a coup doeil of hope as William writes about an angel who Tom sees in his dreamsAnd by came an angel who had a opaline key,And he opened the coffins and set them all freeThen down a green plain leaping, laughing, they run,And wash in a river and shine in the sun.This gives the image that Tom might have tho seen the light and his darkness has been replaced by hope. It is a sad image but it brings hope for Tom like a kind of heaven. To have pure innocence and the freedom in the sun. I dont think this is skillful Toms place, I also believe this is William Blakes catch on how he wished it could have been for him when he was younger.In the after part stanza William writes of the little boys being naked and all white as if their innocence and purity which was taken away from them has come back. He writes how they rise above the clouds perchance on their way to heaven and how Tom had an angel which seems like a guardian angel who says if Tom is a good boy he will have divinity fudge as his father and will never want joy. However this angel could be seen in a dark way, as the Angel of death, but Tom and William decide not to view it in this dark way and try to look to the positives.This shows Tom looks to paragon for help and wisdom, he believes in his faith and one da y wants to be up there with divinity. The sixth stanza talks of how Tom sadly awoke from his dream and rose in the dark, collected his tools and went off to work. William writes Though the morning was cold, Tom was happy and sensitive So if all do their duty they need not fear harm.I think this is showing how much Tom looks up to the heavens above and at God, as he believes one day he will be up there with the almighty people. He believes if he carries on doing his barter and his duties, he will be happy and he need not fear harm as God is protecting him. I think this is also what William believed. William believed he was blessed by God and everything he saw and did was for a discernment. Tom I also think believes this. That God is the only one that can help. He can bring the little childrens innocence and purity back and free their souls. The poem ends in hope for Tom and perhaps William.The Chimney Sweeper (Songs of Experience)This is very much a darker and more shoot vision than that of The Chimney Sweeper (Songs of Innocence). Religion plays a big part in this poem and a lot is related to God.William talks of a neglected child and how religion has alter the child. The first stanza talks of the child looking for his mother and father, as they have departed up to the church to pray. From this first stanza it seems the childs parents are religious and look to God for help.The second stanza is in the past tense and talks of the child being happy upon the heath, smiling in the winters snow but then being clothed in the enclothe of death which he means the dark chimney sweeping clothes that have a feel of death. William writes about how the child was forced to work and taught the notes of woe. This is a sad image, as it seems the little child used to be happy and free, but was sent to work as a chimney sweeper and there he learnt the world of sadness and fear. He found out how to cry and be sad which in one case upon a time he did not know what sad was . However he has been taught to put on a front, to try and cover his sadness and woe with a happy smile so others cannot see that his condition is a sad one. It is like he is playing with death and any moment he could be gone. He feels mentally dead and at bottom he cannot feel anything but emptiness.In the third stanza, the child talks of how he tries to be happy by dancing and singing giving the characterisation to others he is a happy youngster who is looked after well. This is not the case though as William writesAnd because I am happy and dance and sing,They think they have done me no injury,And are gone to laudation God and his Priest and King,Who make up a heaven of our misery.The child is extremely depressed so far it seems no one can see it. He puts on a front to please people but deep down he has been equipment casualty by everyone around him his parents and God. He has been caused injury and pain and does not see the point in life. He makes himself look happy when in fact inwardly he is dead already. He has turned his back on God as he feels God has deserted him. He wants to know how the almighty God can bring such pain and hurt to such a young boy who has looked to him for help. God is meant to be there for help and advice, what God can make a child feel so depressed and sad that he feels on the inside he is dead already? He sees heaven as a place of miserable people, not happy but sad. Heaven was what The Chimney Sweeper (Songs of Innocence) was mostly about and how he was looking forward to seeing God and going to Heaven with the angels. However in Songs of Experience he has totally changed his view on life and his perspective of God and the afterlife. He sees no point in living at all-there is no hope in this poem. Just the darkness of a young child.I think this is how William Blake felt about life, after the fall of the church, how it seemed spirits were blackened by politicians and the way society changed for the worse. William is Tom an d Tom is William. William used to believe in God and at once looked up to him, but when William saw what was happening to society, he wondered what God would allow such bad and harsh things to happen. God is meant to be all good, no evil, but William wants to know how God can allow such terror and pain. No one is happy anymore. wherefore would God make everyone sad and full of woe? William wants the answers but he cannot find them so he decides the only option is to desert God like he believes God has deserted him.The Chimney Sweeper (Songs of Innocence) has a lot more hope than The Chimney Sweeper (Songs of Experience) and talks of angels and Heaven as being a good place where no one is sad. William writes about God becoming Toms father if he does his duties. There is hope for Tom at the end of the poem and gives a good outlook on Toms life. However, The Chimney Sweeper (Songs of Experience) brings a completely different perspective of life and overshadows the innocence. All hope is gone and the sadness and woe is back. God has deserted them, so why should they carry on believing in him when he only seems to be hurting them more?The Chimney Sweeper (songs of Innocence) has been written in the view of a young child who is new to the world. He has been taught to believe that God is pure and innocent and will look after him. That is how the people of society have brought up their children and want them to remain hopeful. Yet The Chimney Sweeper (Songs of Experience) has been written by a more experienced person and shows how all these hopes and dreams have been elude and are not going to happen. The reality is how can there be a God if there are so many people in pain? You get two very different sides with these two poems and two very different comparisons on someone who once had hope who know has no hope.Comparing The Chimney Sweeper (Songs of Innocence) with The Chimney Sweeper (Songs of Experience)The Chimney Sweeper (Songs of Innocence) is almost like a m uch lighter version of The Chimney Sweeper (Songs of Experience). In Songs of Innocence, The boy who is focused on is called Tom and in the second version in Songs of Experience, the boy is unnamed, its as if he has lost his identity as he has grown up. In Songs of Innocence, Tom seems to be new to the world and unknown. He is fresh and is laughable about the world however he is thrown in to a job he does not like and shown the miseries it can cause. Even though this poem shows the downside and trauma it can cause to a child it also brings hope. Even when Tom is down it talks of angels letting all the children in despair free and fulfilling their dreams. Compared to The Chimney Sweeper (Songs of Experience) it does not really contain any hope or joy. It talks of sad and dark images there are no dreams and there is no optimism. This shows the comparison as although it is sad, it does bring a little bit of hope to Tom, as he is young he has dreams that it will be better as time goes on.However it seems Songs of Experience focuses on the dark side of life basically portray the image of insecurity and misery. Songs of Experience talks of churches and people going to pray making the reader thing happy thoughts but what Blake is really trying to say is that god is not all what he seems. If God was so great, why are people in poverty? Why are people dieing and put in these situations? He used to believe that God was there but as hes grown up hes realised that God has not helped him and as time has gone on he has lost his faith. This perhaps reflects William Blakes view on how on he was opposed to the monarchy and the church.These two poems in comparison show William Blakes faith in God beginning and ending. It shows his journey of why he has to come to the point where he no longer feels God is important and will support him. This is a sad journey and he has used a character called Tom who I think represents William Blake as a child to portray this. He want it to be known how he feels but I think for some unknown reason he uses Tom instead of the word I because he wishes to be unknown, religion has seriously affected him and in extreme words damages him. He wants people to realise and understand what he has been through tho he cannot bring himself to be direct as in those days, the monarchy and church had extreme personal effects on society. To speak out against it would almost be a sin itself.William Blake also uses the words I was in The Chimney Sweeper (Songs of Experience) as if it is something he used to be, used to believe in. He is writing about the past and he wishes it to remain the past, whereas The Chimney Sweeper (Songs of Innocence) talks of the present and the hopes for the future so there is a comparison in tenses.The Chimney Sweeper (Songs of Experience) is also a lot shorter than Songs of Innocence. There are only three stanzas where as Songs of Innocence has six. This perhaps shows that as William Blake has lost his faith in God, he has also lost the words to describe this. There is nothing left for him to write about God and he shows this by only writing three verses.The deliverThe love is a perfumed and innocent poem that portrays the image of the world being beautiful and pure. It is all very sweet and touching. William writes about a honey who is an image of happiness and feeling content. The Lamb is good and brings no evil. William is saying that God can and has the ability to make beautiful creatures. The Lamb I think symbolizes the young and the less experienced as everything seems perfect and nothing can go wrong. William sees the Lamb as an Angel of God and I think this is how he saw God when he was young. He saw God as a wonderful and pure thing that he could always rely on. This is the image portrayed to children. William talks of Gods blessing. He asks the question Dost thou know who made thee? and at the end of the poem he answers the question by saying Little Lamb God bless thee. Mean ing God made the Lamb so perfect.The TigerThe Tiger is almost a complete opposite to The Lamb. It raises profound questions but does not finally answer them unlike the Lamb. As in the Lamb it was showing the purity and innocence, yet the Tiger seems to show the hatred and terror of God. It shows the way that life can start so simply everything being perfect, but then turn sour when you least expect it.In the first stanza William writes about an evil tiger that is feared by everyone. He writes that there is no creature or human that dare touch or go near the mighty tiger. God has created something evil that seems to have shocked William. God created the beautiful lamb with its innocence and purity yet God has created something so evil and devilish. So unlike him. William is trying to say that life seems so perfect at first with everything going right, well you think it is going well because you dont know better because you are not experienced, but as you become more experienced you choose that everything that seemed good wasnt. It is like you have been fooled for most of your life believing in something that is not what it seems in Williams case God.In the fifth stanza William writesWhen the stars threw down their spears,And waterd heaven with their tears,Did he smile His work to see?Did he who made the lamb make thee?William is writing that he feels God felt the need to balance the beautiful and innocent creatures with evil creatures. You need the balance of good and evil for the world to go round but do you need this much evil? This much hurt and pain? William wants to know whether the person who made such a sweet and wonderful creature could make such an evil horrible creature. conduct cannot just be a sweet lovely experience you need to have scary experiences to balance it out. Life cannot be too nice so some evil is needed but it depends how much.Comparing The Lamb and The TigerThe Tiger and The Lamb are the same but opposites. Opposites attract and tog ether the Lamb and the Tiger make life. For nature to have harmony, there has to be a natural balance. William is showing the Tiger represents all the things the lamb is not, and the Lamb represents all the things the Tiger isnt.William feels betrayed, he has studied a faith for most of his life that he believed in, but he feels he has been proved wrong. God isnt evil but thats all William can see in front of him. He feels he has been fooled all of his life until he became more experienced and started thinking for himself to work out life isnt all lovey dovey.The Lamb talks of the purity and sweetness of God hence the Lamb, but in the Tiger, William has come to his own conclusion that God has created evil when he is not supposed to do so. He feels God has taken away his innocence so he will take away his belief from God.The comparison between The Lamb and The Tiger cannot be more apparent. They are totally different animals that portray different images to the world. William Blake k new this and just knowing the titles of the poems gives you an idea of the differences. William Blake I think treasured the differences to be obvious to others so they can really understand how he has lost his faith and why.The Lamb contains two stanzas which are quite long but happy. It is set out as if it is a glasshouse rhyme and should be spoken joyfully. You do not even have to read it to recgonise this yet in The Tiger there are six stanzas set out like text in a book. It looks a bit duller compared to The Lamb and is definitely not set out as a glasshouse rhyme. There are a lot more descriptive words than in The Lamb as The Lamb contains more simple rhyming words which are easy to say, making the poem flow with ease possible portraying the easy side of life.The Tiger in comparison is showing the austere side of life and how not everything is what it seems. The Lamb seems to be welcomed with open arms yet The Tiger seems to be feared. This poem shows how God created evil c ompared to the pure, innocent Lamb God also made. The question William Blake wants to know is what God can create evilif he is meant to be all good? It is like people have been fooled and he is the only one that recognises this.The symmetry of the two animals is shown as a love and hate relationship between God. The Tiger poem is longer and more meaningful than The Lamb poem and I think this is because William Blake wants to express what he has seen and learnt whilst growing up it is an experienced piece of writing and much longer as he has more to comment on. The Lamb represents the youth and how when young you are oblivious to the world and its meaning yet as you grow up it becomes noticeable and there are a lot of things you find out which are expressed in The Tiger.Comparing The Chimney Sweeper with The Lamb The TigerThe Chimney sweeper shows how a little boy (Tom) views the world and his society. He talks of hope and happy things until he realises as he becomes more experience d that life isnt how it seems. You see the poem in the eyes of a chimney sweeper who is doing a dangerous job and who does not understand society. This chimney sweeper once looked to God for hope until he realised that there wasnt any. When he realised this he turned his back on God and lost the will to live.In the Lamb and the Tiger, William writes about a beautiful creature that has been created so perfect and sweet but then he talks of the evil tiger who is feared by most. This shows how once he thought life was like the Lamb, full of love and innocence yet as he became older he comes to terms with the fact God created both good and evil and he pietism accept this. To him for most of his life, God was great. Nothing could harm him if God was there but to him this was all fake. This was not the reality he was in.Both poems are focused around society and God. They both result in William coming to terms that all is not what it seemed. Tom is William Blake when he was younger and is open about his feelings and his religion. The Lamb and the Tiger symbolise William when he is older and how he feels. How society has affected his religion dramatically. I think it is sad that William seems to have lost all belief in the one thing that kept him sensible for a while. William Blake wants a God that is pure and innocent, not a touch of evil. Evil is not God, evil is for the devil. William couldnt have what he wanted as he saw a God that creates good and bad and didnt see the point in it so he turned his back on religion and I think all these poems really clearly show this and how perhaps political decisions caused a backlash to him.
Learning strategies EssayLearning or steeringal strategies set the appeal for achieving the cultivation objectives and ar included in the pre-instructional activities, cultivation fork overation, learner activities, testing, and follow- by means of. The strategies atomic follow 18 unremarkably tied to the postulate and interests of educatees to enhance skill and atomic number 18 based on many types of information styles (Ekwensi, Moranski, Townsend-Sweet, 2006). Thus the tuition objectives place you towards the instructional strategies, while the instructional strategies will catch you to the median(a) that will actually deliver the instruction, such(prenominal)(prenominal) as elearning, self- regard, classroom, or OJT. However, do not fall into the trap of victimisation only one medium when designing your course. . . use a bl stop approach. Although round people use the terms interchangeably, objectives, strategies, and media, all affirm separate meaning s. For example, your learning objective might be Pull the correct items for a customer set the instructional strategies argon a demonstration, imbibe a doubtfulness and manage period, and then receive hands-on habituate by actually performing the job, while the media might be a combination of elearning and OJT.The instructional Strategy Selection Chart shown below is a general guideline for selecting the learning strategy. It is based on Blooms Taxonomy (Learning Domains). The matrix generally runs from the passive learning method actings ( halt in rows) to the much active participation methods (bottom rows. Blooms Taxonomy (the right three columns) runs from top to bottom, with the lower level behaviors being on top and the high behaviors being on the bottom. That is, there is a direct correlation in learning Lower levels of performance smoke normally be taught using the more(prenominal) passive learning methods.Higher levels of performance usually require some sort of s erve or involvement by the learners. Instructional Strategy Selection Chart Instructional Strategy cognitive Domain (Bloom, 1956) Affective Domain (Krathwohl, Bloom, Masia, 1973) Psychomotor Domain (Simpson, 1972) Lecture, variant, audio frequency/visual, demonstration, or guided observations, question and answer period 1. Knowledge 1. Receiving phenomena 1. Perception 2. Set paroles, multimedia CBT, Socratic didactic method, reflection. Activities such as surveys, contri thation playing, case studies, fishbowls, etc. 2.Comprehension 3. Application 2. Responding to phenomena 3. Guided response 4. Mechanism On-the-Job-Training (OJT), practice by doing (some commission or coaching is required), simulated job settings (to include CBT simulations) 4. Analysis 3. Valuing 5. Complex response Use in real situations. Also whitethorn be trained by using several high level activities coupled with OJT. 5. Synthesis 4. Organize values into priorities 6. Adaptation Normally formulateed o n own (informal learning) by self-study or learning through mistakes, but mentoring and coaching whoremaster speed the process.6. Evaluation 5. Internalizing values 7. foundation garment The chart does not cover all possibilities, but just just about activities should fit in. For example, self-study could fall under practice, audio visual, and/or activities, depending upon the type of program you design Instructional Skills What are Instructional Skills? Instructional skills are the to the highest degree limited category of pedagogy behaviors. They are necessary for procedural purposes and for structuring appropriate learning have sexs for schoolchilds. A grade of instructional skills and processes exist.Explaining Demonstrating Questioning Questioning Techniques Levels of Questions Wait Time Explaining The teacher spends practicallytimes classroom time explaining or demonstrating something to the whole class, a small group, or an mortal. Student resource materials t ypically do not succeed extensive explanations of concepts, and schoolchilds lots need a demonstration in lay out to understand procedures. Demonstrating The teacher spends much classroom time explaining or demonstrating something to the whole class, a small group, or an single.Student resource materials typically do not provide extensive explanations of concepts, and students actually much need a demonstration in order to understand procedures. Questioning Among the instructional skills, unbelieving holds a place of prominence in many classrooms. When questioning is apply well a high degree of student participation occurs as questions are wide distributed an appropriate mix of low and high level cognitive questions is used student understanding is increase student thinking is stimulated, directed, and extended feedback and appropriate reinforcement occurstudents critical thinking abilities are honed and, student creativity is fostered.Questioning Technique The teacher shou ld begin by obtaining the attention of the students before the question is asked. The question should be addressed to the entire class before a specific student is asked to respond. Calls for responses should be distributed among volunteers and non-volunteers, and the teacher should encourage students to articulate to the whole class when responding. However, the teacher must be sensitive to each students willingness to speak publically and never put a student on the spot.Levels of Questions date the need for factual regress or comprehension must be recognized, teachers to a fault need to challenge students with higher level questions requiring analysis, synthesis, or evaluation. The consideration of level is applic fit at all grade levels and in all subject areas. in all students need the opportunity to think about and respond to all levels of questions. Teacher probes or requests for clarification may be required to move students to higher levels of thinking and deeper levels of understanding.Wait TimeWait time is specify as the pause between asking the question and soliciting a response. Providing additional wait time after(prenominal) a student response also allows all students to reflect on the response prior to provided discussion. Increased wait time results in long-acting student responses, more appropriate unsolicited responses, more student questions, and increased higher order responses. It should be noted that increased wait time is dear for students who speak English as a second language or English as a second dialect. Instructional Strategies 1.Direct instruction 2. mediate instruction 3. synergetic instruction 4. fencesitter study 5. Experiential learning 1. What is Direct Instruction? The Direct instruction strategy is highly teacher-directed and is among the most unremarkably used. This strategy is effective for providing information or developing step-by-step skills. It also works well for introducing former(a) teaching methods, or actively involving students in knowledge construction. workable Methods organise Overview Lecture Explicit pedagogy Drill Practice Compare Contrast Didactic Questions.Demonstrations Guided Shared reading, listening, viewing, thinking What is Structured Overview? Structured Overview is verbal, visual or written summary or outline of a topic. It can occur at the beginning of a unit, module or upstart concept, or it may be used to dish out relate a learned idea to the big picture. A Structured Overview distills arduous or compound idea into simple definitions or explanation, and then shows how all the information relates. It is the process of organizing and arranging topics to make them more meaningful. What is Lecture?Lecture is a valuable part of a teachers instructional repertoire if it is not used when opposite methods would be more effective. If the presenter is knowledgeable, perceptive, loving, and motivating, then lecture can stimulate reflection, challenge the imagination, and develop curiosity and a sense of doubt. Criteria for the selection of the lecture method should include the types of experiences students will be afforded and the kinds of learning outcomes expected. Because lecture is teacher-centred and student military action is mainly passive, the attention span of students may be limited.Many students, because of learning style preferences, may not readily assimilate lecture issue. In addition, lectured content is often quick forgotten. What is Explicit Teaching? Explicit teaching involves directing student attention toward specific learning in a highly incorporated environment. It is teaching that is digested on producing specific learning outcomes. Topics and contents are broken down into small parts and taught individually. It involves explanation, demonstration and practise. Children are provided with way and structured frameworks.Topics are taught in a logical order and directed by the teacher. Another big charact eristic of explicit teaching involves seating skills and behaviours and modelling thinking. This involves the teacher thinking out loud when working through problems and demonstrating processes for students. The attention of students is principal(prenominal) and listening and observation are key to success. What is Drill Practice? As an instructional strategy, drill practice is familiar to all educators. It promotes the acquisition of knowledge or skill through repetitive practice. It refers to small tasks such as the memorization of spelling or vocabulary words, or the practicing of arithmetic facts and may also be found in more supplicated learning tasks or physical education games and sports. Drill-and-practice, like memorization, involves repetition of specific skills, such as addition and subtraction, or spelling. To be meaningful to learners, the skills make through drill-and-practice should become the grammatical construction blocks for more meaningful learning. What is Compare Contrast? Compare and Contrast is used to highlight similarities and differences between to things.It is a process where the act of classification is practiced. It is effectively used in conjunction with indirect instructional methods, but can also be used directly to teach vocabulary signals, classification, nomenclature and key characteristics. It is often presented in either written text paragraphs or a chart. Its most common use is as a graphic deck outr of content. What are Didactic Questions? Didactic questioning offers the teacher a demeanor to structure the learning process (McNeil Wiles, 1990). Didactic questions tend to be convergent, factual, and often begin with what, where, when, and how. They can be effectively used to diagnose recall and comprehension skills, to draw on prior learning experiences, to determine the extent to which lesson objectives were achieved, to provide practice, and to aid retention of information or processes. Teachers should rememb er that didactic questions can be simplistic, can encourage guessing, and can discourage insightful answers or creativity. However, effectiveness of this method can be increased by the appropriate addition of why questions, and the occasional use of what if questions. What is Demonstration?A method of teaching by example rather than simple explanation What are Guided and Share? Prioritizes subjective motivation and helps students to become more engaged in learning experiences through connecting their beliefs and life goals to curricular requirements 2. What is Indirect Instruction? In contrast to the direct instruction strategy, indirect instruction is mainly student- centreed, although the two strategies can complement each other. Indirect instruction seeks a high level of student involvement in observing, investigating, drawing inferences from data, or forming hypotheses.It takes advantage of students interest and curiosity, often encouraging them to bring forth alternatives or solve problems. In indirect instruction, the role of the teacher shifts from lecturer/director to that of facilitator, supporter, and resource person. The teacher arranges the learning environment, provides opportunity for student involvement, and, when appropriate, provides feedback to students while they conduct the inquiry (Martin, 1983). Possible Methods Problem Solving Case Studies Reading for Meaning question Reflective Discussion piece to Inform Concept Formation Concept Mapping.Concept Attainment cloze Procedure What is Problem Solving? There are two major types of problem re issue ruminative and creative. Regardless of the type of problem solving a class uses, problem solving focuses on perspicacious the issues, considering all possible factor and finding a solution. Because all ideas are accepted initially, problem solving allows for finding the best possible solution as opposed to the easiest solution or the first solution proposed. What are Case Studies? Case studi es are stories or scenarios, often in narrative form, created and used as a tool for analysis and discussion.They have a long tradition of use in higher education particularly in business and law. Cases are often based on actual events which adds a sense of urgency or reality. Case studies have elements of simulations but the students are observers rather than participants. A expert case has sufficient detail to necessitate re count and to stimulate analysis from a variety of viewpoints or perspectives. They place the learner in the position of problem solver. Students become actively engaged in the materials discovering profound issues, dilemmas and conflict issues. What is Reading for Meaning?Children become curious about printed symbols once they recognize that print, like talk, conveys meaningful passs that direct, inform or entertain people. By school age, many children are eager to continue their geographic expedition of print. One goal of this curriculum is to develop flu ent and proficient readers who are knowledgeable about the reading process. What is Inquiry? Inquiry learning provides opportunities for students to experience and acquire processes through which they can gather information about the world.This requires a high level of interaction among the learner, the teacher,the area of study, available resources, and the learning environment. Students become actively voluminous in the learning process as they act upon their curiosity and interests develop questions think their way through controversies or dilemmas look at problems analytically inquire into their preconceptions and what they already know develop, clarify, and test hypotheses and, draw inferences and generate possible solutions. Questioning is the heart of inquiry learning. Students must ask relevant questions and develop ways to search for answers and generate explanations.Emphasis is placed upon the process of thinking as this applies to student interaction with issues, data, t opics, concepts, materials, and problems. What is Reflective Discussion ? Reflective discussions encourage students to think and talk about what they have observed, heard or read. The teacher or student initiates the discussion by asking a question that requires students to reflect upon and interpret films, experiences, read or recorded stories, or illustrations. As students question and recreate information and events in a film or story, they clarify their thoughts and feelings.The questions posed should encourage students to relate story content to life experiences and to other stories. These questions will take out individual(prenominal) interpretations and feelings. Interpretations will vary, but such variances demonstrate that differences of opinion are valuable. What is Writing to Inform? Writing that reports information to others can vary greatly in content and format. Many learning experiences culminate in expository or informative opus activities. Students must have oppo rtunities to read a variety of resources and printed materials for information.During writing, students can apply their knowledge of the structures and formats of these materials to organize and convey information. What is Concept Formation ? Concept formation provides students with an opportunity to seek ideas by making connections and seeing relationships between items of information. This method can help students develop and refine their power to recall and discriminate among key ideas, to see commonalities and identify relationships, to formulate concepts and generalizations, to explain how they have organized data, and to present evidence to support their organization of the data involved.What are Concept Maps? A concept map is a special form of a web diagram for exploring knowledge and gathering and sacramental manduction information. Concept subroutine is the strategy plighted to develop a concept map. A concept map consists of nodes or cells that guard a concept, item or question and links. The links are labeled and denote direction with an pointer symbol. The labeled links explain the relationship between the nodes. The arrow describes the direction of the relationship and reads like a sentence. What is Concept Attainment? Concept Attainment is an indirect instructional strategy that uses a structured inquiry process.It is based on the work of Jerome Bruner. In concept attainment, students figure out the attributes of a group or category that has already been formed by the teacher. To do so, students compare and contrast examples that contain the attributes of the concept with examples that do not contain those attributes. They then separate them into two groups. Concept attainment, then, is the search for and identification of attributes that can be used to distinguish examples of a given group or category from non-examples. What is cloze Procedure?Cloze procedure is a technique in which words are deleted from a passage according to a word-count formula or various other criteria. The passage is presented to students, who insert words as they read to achieve and construct meaning from the text. This procedure can be used as a diagnostic reading assessment technique. It is used to identify students knowledge and understanding of the reading process to determine which cueing systems readers effectively employ to construct meaning from print to assess the extent of students vocabularies and knowledge of a subject to encourage students to superintend for meaning while readingto encourage students to think critically and analytically about text and content 3.What is Experiential Learning? Experiential learning is inductive, learner centered, and activity oriented. Personalized reflection about an experience and the formulation of plans to apply learning to other contexts are critical factors in effective experiential learning. The tension in experiential learning is on the process of learning and not on the product. Experien tial learning can be viewed as a cycle consisting of five phases, all of which are necessary experiencing (an activity occurs)sharing or publishing (reactions and observations are dowryd) analysing or processing (patterns and dynamics are determined)inferring or generalizing (principles are derived) and, applying (plans are made to use learning in new situations).Possible Methods Field Trips Narratives Conducting Experiments Simulations Games Storytelling Focused image Field Observations Role-playing Model Building Surveys What are Field Trips? A field trip is a structured activity that occurs away(p) the classroom. It can be a brief observational activity or a longer more sustained investigation or project.While field trips take considerable organization, it is important to be clear about what the field trip will accomplish prepare students for the learning have a debriefing seance for students to share their learning when they return to the classroom What are Narratives? Narra tive essays are told from a defined point of view, often the authors, so there is feeling as well as specific and often sensory details provided to get the reader involved in the elements and sequence of the story. What are Conducting Experiments? Is an orderly procedure carried out with the goal of verifying, refuting, or establishing the validity of a hypothesis.Experiments provide insight into cause-and-effect by demonstrating what outcome occurs when a particular factor is manipulated. What are Simulations? A simulation is a form of experiential learning. Simulations are instructional scenarios where the learner is placed in a world defined by the teacher. They diddle a reality within which students interact. The teacher controls the parameters of this world and uses it to achieve the desired instructional results. Simulations are in way, a lab experiment where the students themselves are the test subjects.They experience the reality of the scenario and gather meaning from it. It is a strategy that fits well with the principles of constructivism. Simulations promote the use of critical and evaluative thinking. The ambiguous or open ended nature of a simulation encourages students to contemplate the implications of a scenario. The situation feels real and thus leads to more engaging interaction by learners. They are motivating activities enjoyed by students of all ages. What are Games?Is structured playing, usually undertaken for use and sometimes used asan educational tool. Games are distinct from work, which is usually carried out for remuneration, and from art, which is more often an expression of aesthetic or ideological elements. What is Storytelling? Is the conveying of events in words, and images, often by improvisation or embellishment. Stories or narratives have been shared in every culture as a means of entertainment, education, pagan preservation, and instilling moral values. Crucial elements of stories and storytelling include plot, characters , and narrative point of view. What is Focused Imaging?Imaging, the process of internally visualizing an object, event, or situation, has the potential to nurture and enhance a students creativity (Bagley Hess, 1987). Imaging enables students to relax and allow their imaginations to take them on journeys, to experience situations first hand, and to respond with their senses to the mental images formed. What are Field Observations? The process of filtering sensory information through the thought process. Input is received via hearing, sight, smell, taste, or touch and then analyzed through either rational or irrational thought.What is Role compete? In role playing, students act out characters in a predefined situation. Role playing allows students to take risk-free positions by acting out characters in hypothetic situations. It can help them understand the range of concerns, values, and positions held by other people. Role playing is an enlightening and interest way to help student s see a problem from some other perspective. What is Model Building? What is Survey? is a peer-reviewed open access scientific journal that publishes papers related to the development and application of survey techniques.4. What is Independent Study? Independent study refers to the range of instructional methods which are purposefully provided to foster the development of individual student initiative, self-reliance, and self-improvement. While independent study may be initiated by student or teacher, the focus here will be on planned independent study by students under the guidance or supervision of a classroom teacher. In addition, independent study can include learning in partnership with another(prenominal) individual or as part of a small group. Possible Methods Essays Computer Assisted Instruction.Journals Learning Logs Reports Learning Activity Packages residue Lessons Learning Contracts Homework Research Projects depute Questions Learning Centers What is Essay? is general ly a short piece of writing written from an authors personal point of view, but the definition is vague, overlapping with those of an article and a short story. Essays can consist of a number of elements, including literary criticism, political manifestos, learned arguments, observations of daily life, recollections, and reflections of the author. What is Computer Assisted Instruction?Computer-assisted instruction (CAI) refers to instruction or remediation presented on a computer. Computer programs can allow students to progress at their own dance step and work individually or problem solve in a group. Computers provide immediate feedback, let students know whether their answer is correct. If the answer is not correct, the program shows students how to correctly answer the question. Computers offer a contrary type of activity and a change of footmark from teacher-led or group instruction. Also, computer-assisted instruction moves at the students pace and usually doesnot move ahea d until they have mastered the skill. What is Journal Writing?Journal writing is a learning tool based on the ideas that students write to learn. Students use the journals to write about topics of personal interest, to note their observations, to imagine, to wonder and to connect new information with things they already know. What are Learning Logs ? Learning logs are a simple and straightforward way to help students integrate content, process, and personal feelings. Learning logs operate from the military capability that students learn from writing rather than writing what they have learned.The common application is to have students make entries in their logs during the last five minutes of class or after each completed week of class. The message here is that short, frequent bursts of writing are more productive over time than are infrequent, longer assignments. What are Reports ? Written reports are documents which present focused, salient content to a specific audience. Reports are often used to display the result of an experiment, investigation, or inquiry. The audience may be public or private, an individual or the public in general.Reports are used in government, business, education, science, and other fields. Learning Activity Packages Correspondence Lessons What are Learning Contracts ? Learning contracts provide a method of individualizing instruction and developing student responsibility. They digest individual pacing so that students may learn at the rate at which they are able to master the material. Learning contracts can be designed so that students function at the academic levels most suitable to them and work with resource materials containing concepts and knowledge that are appropriate to their abilities and experiences.Although this method focuses on the individual, learning contracts also provide an opportunity for students to work in small groups. The teacher may select this approach for some students to support them as they learn to work independently. What are Homeworks ? Refers to tasks assigned to students by their teachers to be completed outside the class. Common homework assignments may include a quantity or period of reading to be performed, writing or typing to be completed, problems to be solved, a school project to be built (such as a diorama or display), or other skills to be practiced.What is Researching? Research projects are very effective for developing and extending language arts skills as students learn in all subject areas. While doing research, students practice reading for specific purposes, recording information, sequencing and organizing ideas, and using language to inform others. A research model provides students with a framework for organizing information about a topic. Research projects frequently include these four step 1. determining the purpose and topic 2. gathering the information 3. organizing the information.4. sharing knowledge. What are Assigned Questions ? Assigned questions are those prepared by the teacher to be answered by individuals or small groups of students. Students discuss their responses among one another or with the teacher. Particular positions or points-of-view should be supported by evidence. In some instances, it may be desirable for students to generate their own set of questions. What is Learning Center? There are eight basic learning centers in an early childhood/elementary classroom, according to the Stephen F.Austin State University Charter educate program, each structured to expand the students experiences in a variety of meaningful and effective ways. Each center is constructed to encompass numerous objectives, including state and federal standards, school standards, and community standards. The learning centers approach focuses on student autonomy and learning style by giving each student an opportunity to explore his learning environment hands-on in a developmentally appropriate classroom 5. What is Interactive Instruction? Inter active instruction relies heavily on discussion and sharing among participants.Students can learn from peers and teachers to develop social skills and abilities, to organize their thoughts, and to develop rational arguments. The interactive instruction strategy allows for a range of groupings and interactive methods. It is important for the teacher to outline the topic, the amount of discussion time, the composition and size of the groups, and reporting or sharing techniques. Interactive instruction requires the refinement of observation, listening, interpersonal, and intervention skills and abilities by both teacher and students.The success of the interactive instruction strategy and its many methods is heavily dependent upon the expertise of the teacher in structuring and developing the dynamics of the group. Possible Methods Debates Role Playing Panels Brainstorming Peer Partner Learning Discussion Laboratory Groups Think, Pair, Share Cooperative Learning fretsaw Problem Solving Structured Controversy Tutorial Groups Interviewing Conferencing What is Debating? Debating is a structured contest of argumentation in which two op constitute individuals or teams defend and attack a given proposition.The procedure is bound by rules that vary based on location and participants. The process is adjudicated and a winner is declared. What is Role Playing? In role playing, students act out characters in a predefined situation. Role playing allows students to take risk-free positions by acting out characters in hypothetical situations. It can help them understand the range of concerns, values, and positions held by other people. Role playing is an enlightening and interesting way to help students see a problem from another perspective. What is Panelling? Panel discussions, however, differ from team presentations.Their purpose is different. In a team presentation, the group presents agreed-upon views in a embellish discussion, the purpose is to present different views. Also in a team presentations, usually speakers stand as they speak in panel discussions, usually speakers sit the whole time. In panel discussion each speaker prepares separately, the other speakers here one another for the time at the session itself. What is Brainstorming? Brainstorming is a large or small group activity which encourages children to focus on a topic and contribute to the free flow of ideas.The teacher may begin by posing a question or a problem, or by introducing a topic. Students then express possible answers, relevant words and ideas. Contributions are accepted without criticism or judgement. Initially, some students may be backward to speak out in a group setting but brainstorming is an open sharing activity which encourages all children to participate. By expressing ideas and listening to what others say, students adjust their previous knowledge or understanding, accommodate new information and increase their levels of awareness.What is Peer Partner Learning? Peer partner learning is a cooperative experience in which students learn from and with each other for individual purposes. Students reflect upon previously taught material by helping peers to learn and, at the same time, develop and hone their social skills. What is Discussion ? A discussion is an oral exploration of a topic, object, concept or experience. All learners need frequent opportunities to generate and share their questions and ideas in small and whole class settings.Teachers who encourage and accept students questions and comments without judgement and clarify understandings by paraphrasing difficult terms stimulate the exchange of ideas. What is Laboratory Groups? What is Think, Pair, Share? Think-Pair-Share is a strategy designed to provide students with fodder for thought on a given topics enabling them to formulate individual ideas and share these ideas with another student. It is a learning strategy developed by Lyman and associates to encourage student classroom participation. Rather than using a basic recitation method in which a teacher poses a question and one student offers.