Friday, May 31, 2019

Pacifism & Conscientious Objection :: essays research papers fc

During the 20th century America has been involved in many conflicts that have led to war or the taking up of arms against other humans and nations. Although the vast majority of Americans have blindly accepted these actions throughout the century, more and more people are seeing war as morally impairment. Reasons for this epiphany are based off of a variety of things and encompass many other aspects related to war and violent death examples include due to moral and ethical principles, objection to war due to strong religious beliefs, the objection to violence due to the same ideals above, objection to the governments social function of force, and the objection to the use of weapons of mass destruction. Many of the core beliefs of conscientious objection derive from the teachings or beliefs of pacifism. pacificism has been a system of thinking and living for hundreds of years, and, in the 20th century many objection and pacifistic movements have sprung up all around the nation, more so than in any other time. Pacifism and conscientious objection in the United States have been moral issues that have fallen under question due to the belief of the participants that killing, war, and the act of violence is wrong and immoral.To begin to understand the workings of conscientious objection, it is important have a clear view of what pacifism is. The roots of pacifism reach back for literally hundreds of years. Practically all of the messiahs of all the chief religions of the world preached for pacifism including Allah and Muhammad from the Muslim Koran, Jesus and God from the Bible used by Catholics, Christens, and Quakers, and in the Jewish Torah. separate teachers of pacifism include Plato and Socrates. The moral and ethical principles of pacifism and conscientious objection have been present throughout United States history. There have been known objectors in every single war that America has been somehow involved, Including The French and Indian War, The Revol utionary War, The War of 1812, The Civil War, The Spanish American War, The Mexican American War, universe of discourse War One, World War Two, The Korean War, The Vietnam War, The Persian Gulf War, and into the ongoing War Against "Terror". Pacifism is the refusal to participate in any violent actions and or killing. This can be derived from the belief that all life is sacred and that it is morally wrong to take another persons life.

Thursday, May 30, 2019

Ursula K. LeGuins The Ones Who Walk Away from Omelas Essay -- America

Ursula K. LeGuins The Ones Who take the air Away from OmelasWorks Cited Not IncludedIn The Ones Who Walk Away from Omelas, Ursula K. LeGuin makes use of colorful descriptions and hypothetical situations to draw us into a surrealistic universe of discourse that illustrates how unsympathetic society can be. LeGuins ambiguity of how the story allow for go is purposeful she cunningly makes her case that each of us handles the undesirable aspects of the world we live in differently, and that ultimately, happiness is relative. As we explore this peculiar world of Omelas, we are prompted to ask ourselves, What do I think is the perfect society? What is happiness to me?, and most importantly (to me), Would I walk away from Omelas? While we explore these questions, LeGuin expects that we provide discover how far we are willing to go to indulge our need for comfort at the expense and pain of others. How important is our material possessions and comforts? maybe it would be best if you ima gined it as your fancy bids, assuming it will rise to the occasion, for certainly I cannot suit you all(1264), LeGuin invites us to take grapheme in what at first seems to be a surrealistic trip through Omelas -- to explore our own Omelas. To partake as the main character in this utopia, this urban center of odd joy we are urged on by a climaxing tempo of colorful passages and lush scenery, Far off to the north and west the mountains stood up half(a) encircling Omelas on her bay (1264), and jubilant music and dance, In other streets the music beat faster, a shimmering of gong and tambourine, and the people went dancing, the procession was a dance (1264). One can almost hear the small fryrens laughter, their high calls rising like the swallows crossing flights over t... has become desensitized to the pain and suffering of others. LeGuin creates a paradox by offering us the mercy that is not extended to the child. We are given a chance to escape from Omelas. Will we w alk away from Omelas and leave the child to suffer, or stay and become the people of Omelas, with their blank empty smiles?The place they go towards is a place even less imaginable to most of us than the city of happiness (1267). We dont know where the place is that these people escape to. Their fate is uncertain, but for those who leave, it is better to go into the unknown than to remain and be a part of this uncaring, indifferent society. LeGuins short fiction Those Who Walk Away From Omelas suggests to us that it is possible to break away from our learned behavior and take on a new, more caring approach to each other, and the world around us.

False Portrayal of Mental Illness in the Media Essay -- The Roommate, F

False limning of Mental Illness in the MediaProtagonistThe celluloid The Roommate, revolves around a upstart girl named Sarah (Minka Kelly) who is starting her freshman year of college. Little does she know that she has a roommate that is diagnosed with numerous psychic disorders that she is not treating by taking her medication. When they are initially acquainted as roommates, Sara comes across as beingness innocent and depicts very normal behavior. However, as soon as Rebecca and Sarah sprain closer to each other, Rebecca forms an fixing with Sara and strange events begin to occur. Each of Sarahs close friends or allies becomes hurt, and even killed. As soon as Sara discovers the symptoms of her mental illness, she becomes extremely wary in her presence, and grows more distant of her. Additionally, she sees her as a threat and as the cause of all the wrongdoing that is occurring around her. Diagnosis portray In the painting, the antagonist, Rebecca is diagnosed with bipola r disorder. However, the movie does not initially introduce her as someone with this mental illness. Rather, at the start of the movie, Rebecca acts nave, innocent, and completely normal. As a result, no one gets the slightest mental picture that she is abnormal in any way. Ultimately, the truth is revealed to the leading character, Sara, when Rebeccas mother asks if she has been taking her medication. Moreover, things become significantly clearer when Sara and her love interest, Stephen, ferret out a full bottleful of Zyprexa pills in her room, implying that she has not been taking her medication. Thereupon, they find out that it is used to treat bipolar disorder. Dysfunction portrayed As the date of the movie progresses, Rebeccas accredited colors come out when ... ...e but that she is also sad and very lonely. Nevertheless, the scene at the end of the movie, showing Rebeccas death, was inevitable that left me purport empty, and empathetic towards Rebecca. However, from a cl inical view, I am a bit insulted in how the media depicted her disorder as being inhumane and monstrous. On the like note, it disappointed me to see that many viewers would get a misguided impression of the people who suffer from bipolar disorder. ReferencesCrowe, M. (2011). whimsy out of control A qualitative analysis of the impact of bipolar disorder. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 19, 294-302. Karriem, Vernada. (2011). Understanding Bipolar Disorder. Retrieved from http// False Portrayal of Mental Illness in the Media Essay -- The Roommate, FFalse Portrayal of Mental Illness in the MediaProtagonistThe movie The Roommate, revolves around a young girl named Sarah (Minka Kelly) who is starting her freshman year of college. Little does she know that she has a roommate that is diagnosed with numerous mental disorders that she is not treating by taking her medication. Whe n they are initially acquainted as roommates, Sara comes across as being innocent and depicts very normal behavior. However, as soon as Rebecca and Sarah become closer to each other, Rebecca forms an obsession with Sara and strange events begin to occur. Each of Sarahs close friends or allies becomes hurt, and even killed. As soon as Sara discovers the symptoms of her mental illness, she becomes extremely wary in her presence, and grows more distant of her. Additionally, she sees her as a threat and as the cause of all the wrongdoing that is occurring around her. Diagnosis portrayed In the movie, the antagonist, Rebecca is diagnosed with bipolar disorder. However, the movie does not initially introduce her as someone with this mental illness. Rather, at the start of the movie, Rebecca acts nave, innocent, and completely normal. As a result, no one gets the slightest impression that she is abnormal in any way. Ultimately, the truth is revealed to the leading character, Sara, when Reb eccas mother asks if she has been taking her medication. Moreover, things become significantly clearer when Sara and her love interest, Stephen, find a full bottle of Zyprexa pills in her room, implying that she has not been taking her medication. Thereupon, they find out that it is used to treat bipolar disorder. Dysfunction portrayed As the duration of the movie progresses, Rebeccas true colors come out when ... ...e but that she is also sad and very lonely. Nevertheless, the scene at the end of the movie, showing Rebeccas death, was inevitable that left me feeling empty, and empathetic towards Rebecca. However, from a clinical view, I am a bit insulted in how the media depicted her disorder as being inhumane and monstrous. On the same note, it disappointed me to see that many viewers would get a misguided impression of the people who suffer from bipolar disorder. ReferencesCrowe, M. (2011). Feeling out of control A qualitative analysis of the impact of bipolar disorde r. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 19, 294-302. Karriem, Vernada. (2011). Understanding Bipolar Disorder. Retrieved from http//

Wednesday, May 29, 2019

Death In Toms River :: essays research papers

When I first saw Linda Gilik and I was told that I had to listen to her presentation I didnt fully realize how much it was going to move me. She is a woman who had a healthy luxuriate boy, and then after loving this normal child for terzetto months was told that he was diagnosed with cancer of the nervous system. She was very taken back by what she was told and knew that there was something wrong because it came out of no where. It is very rare for a baby to get cancer, this type of cancer occurs in one in a million babies. She went to Sloan Keteran a world famous cancer hospital in unexampled York City. She was sitting on her sons floor which had 40 beds filled with children patients, and saw that 7 or 8 of toughs beds were children from gobblers River New Jersey. She started talking to some of the parents of the children from Toms River and they decided to investigate and maybe find out the reason this was happening to their children. Her son Michael was diagnosed with this c ancer in 1979. He is now 25 historic period old and lives at home. He is a 25 year old in a 7 year olds body because of the cancer and the procedures he has to go through. After a couple of years of investigations and several years later, a nurse at a hospital in Philadelphia in the cancer cover saw that again a lot of the children that were there were from the same place, Toms River. She called EPA 3 to report what she was seeing they called EPA 2 who called the New Jersey department of health. Then a man named Michael Berry made a report of what was going on called the Berry report in 1995. This was going on 16 years after Lindas son Michael was diagnosed, they still didnt have a clue and the cancer rates of children in Toms River were getting bigger. Finally, they decided to start testing the pee in Toms River to have some kind of clue as to what is happening. When they tested the water from the schools, they found many cancer causing chemicals. What happened was a man named M r. Fernicola was sibyllic to destroy drums full of chemicals. Instead, he was lazy and paid the sanitation workers off so that he can just take them and dump them in the landfill.

Analysis of Curiosity by Alastair Reid Essay -- Curiosity Poem Essays

More likely the cat was just unlucky (l. 1-2). In this narrative poem ? oddity?, by Alastair Reid, he gives a dissertation on cats and dogs. Cats are adventurous and dogs do not take chances. Reid uses symbols Have you ever heard the saying ? oddness killed the cat? (l. 1)? and allegory to disclose the theme that life can be more fulfilling if one opens the door to new and different prospects. In ?Curiosity?, Reid describes the lives of cats and dogs as though they are everyday people. Cats, being the inquisitive ones, are willing to lead a life of risk-taking without weighing the consequences. ?Dogs say cats love too much, are irresponsible, are changeable, marry too many wives, desert their children, chill all dinner tables with tales of their nine lives.? (ll. 27-30). Cats feel...

Tuesday, May 28, 2019

The calamities of Julius Caesar :: Julius Caesar Essays

The calamities of Julius Caesar   Tragedies most often refer back to the actions of men. The play Julius Caesar, by William Shakespeare, provides a good example to how the quote is shown to be accurate. The calamities of tragedy do not simply happen, nor are they sent by the gods they proceed mainly from actions, and those actions of men. This statement is profoundly proven through the past and present actions of the plotters throughout the play. From the beginning of the play, the reader can identify who will necessarily betray and plot to murder Caesar.   Cassius, main conspirator in this play, initially draws Brutus into the inner circle. From the beginning of the play, Cassius seeks Brutus for the newest addition to the plot and knows if Brutus is added, the plot will be successful. Even in the first scene of Act II Cassius is flattering Brutus in order to entice Brutus into joining the murderous group. Your hidden worthiness into your eye, that you might see your shadow. I have heard where many of the surmount respect in Rome, speaking of Brutus, and groaning underneath this ages yolk, have wished that noble Brutus had his eyes. (p. 350 ln. 55-60) This quote depicts when Cassius first starts to flatter Brutus and say Brutus is the most respected and noble man in Rome. These compliments and forms of flattery are what first showed Brutus was kind of man the people see him as and what time of power Brutus could produce in himself.   Actions at several(prenominal) moments in Julius Caesar speak louder than words. A prime example is when Cassius wants the men to make a pact to follow through with the murder, but Brutus speaks up and says that the pact is unnecessary. Brutus feels as though every man is a true Roman and each man is as trustworthy and noble as he. As for Antonys speech, this is a unit different story. The words Antony spoke to the public helped motivate the people to go against the conspirators. Thought the action of killing Caesar was a publicized one, Antonys speech was far from organism unnoticed.   All of the things which went on throughout the play all relate back to the actions of Cassius.

The calamities of Julius Caesar :: Julius Caesar Essays

The calamities of Julius Caesar   Tragedies most often refer rear to the actions of men. The play Julius Caesar, by William Shakespeare, provides a good example to how the reiterate is shown to be accurate. The calamities of tragedy do non simply happen, nor are they sent by the gods they proceed mainly from actions, and those actions of men. This statement is profoundly proven through the past and present actions of the conspirators throughout the play. From the beginning of the play, the reader buns identify who will necessarily betray and dapple to murder Caesar.   Cassius, main conspirator in this play, initially draws Brutus into the inner circle. From the beginning of the play, Cassius seeks Brutus for the newest addition to the plot and knows if Brutus is added, the plot will be successful. Even in the first scene of Act II Cassius is flattering Brutus in order to entice Brutus into joining the murderous group. Your mysterious worthiness into your eye, that you might see your shadow. I have heard where many of the best respect in Rome, speaking of Brutus, and groaning underneath this ages yolk, have wished that noble Brutus had his eyes. (p. 350 ln. 55-60) This quote depicts when Cassius first starts to flatter Brutus and say Brutus is the most respected and noble man in Rome. These compliments and forms of flattery are what first showed Brutus was kind of man the battalion see him as and what time of power Brutus could produce in himself.   Actions at some moments in Julius Caesar speak louder than words. A prime example is when Cassius wants the men to score a pact to follow through with the murder, but Brutus speaks up and says that the pact is unnecessary. Brutus feels as though every man is a true Roman and all(prenominal) man is as trustworthy and noble as he. As for Antonys speech, this is a whole different story. The words Antony spoke to the public helped motivate the people to go against the consp irators. Thought the action of killing Caesar was a publicized one, Antonys speech was far from being unnoticed.   All of the things which went on throughout the play all relate back to the actions of Cassius.

Monday, May 27, 2019

Globalization of business operations and industries Essay

Globalization of barter operations and industries has created a new challenge for organization penetrating in internationalistic markets. Several factors require wariness when firms focus on diversifying its product/service offering in international markets. Especially springing the viewpoint to human alternative requires managing the workplace diversity, employee selection mechanism, heathenish differences, and managing the intercultural communication requires assessing the capabilities of organization to hatch these put outs.International market business operations present the companies with acquiring new set of skills and transformation in human resource policy in order to perform the services with flexibility that doest not hinder in goals achievement. Workplace diversity management is the essential and important issue that inescapably to be address by an organization entering in international markets. Since diverse workforce consist of people belonging to several(predi cate) culture, races, having different ethnic background, a different way of learning thus providing different ideas merging in organization.This enables organization to utilize and focus on enlarge business challenges in different business markets. Strategic HRM policy structure gives flexibility to organization for changing its focused principle in consideration of market needs such as cultural dimensional factors identified by Hofstede on various dimensions helps identify the factors to be addressed by organization based on the market needs. Cultural differences have strong implications for organization expanding in international markets.Therefore, organization needs to give autonomy and flexibility to employees that go away serve organisational purposes in international markets by leveraging the HRM policies. This can be done by regulating the rewards and compensation package structure for employees who will need to be relocating in different workplace locations collectible to their skills required to penetrate and serve in international markets. In relation to managing cultural differences, organization must square up a comprehensive and decentralized decision making structure through defining the hierarchy management channel in its policy for international markets.Since few activities of firm remain limited in centralized location, so in order to comprehend the objective proper decision making style will enable accuracy and timeliness of activities. Decentralization of decision making structure will reduce the possible delay in decision making due to multi-level hierarchy structure of an organization and will as well result in better assessment of any situation due to diverse workforce. Communication betwixt departments and stakeholders is highly significant when concerning the international operations of an organization.Effectiveness of organizational culture for performing international operations is based on the communication style colligate to information processing, decision convey ability, surpassing the imperative information related to business decision making, and matters related to managing intercultural communication barrier. Ambiguous and unstructured problems require managing the barriers to emend the interdepartmental sharing of information for goals accomplishment.This issue can be addressed by initiating equal employment opportunity program for international business which would limit the selective culture growth of organization and encourage workplace diverse. Frame of reference affects the cross-cultural communication due to selective visionary capabilities of employees to foresee the strength growth possibilities. Therefore organization must initiate a formalized recruitment program focusing on viewing various individual dimensions in its SHRM policy structure to normalize the responses towards reducing frame of reference.Stereotypical response by employees increases the biasness that affects the communic ation at international level increasing the chances of intergroup conflict modify the effective goals accomplishment of organization. In association to this, chances of misunderstanding increases when firm do not address discrimination issue in its HRM policy to manage international operations functionality. Impartiality of decisions thus contributes towards progressive growth pertaining to employee contribution.At international level, cognitive dissonance is also a big challenge for firms to manage as ambiguity in information sharing leads towards strong misunderstanding among departments which may be depicted in actions leading towards wrong objectives setting. Company must address the corporate culture issue and coordination mechanism in its HRM policy to reduce the impact of cognitive dissonance on organizational goals accomplishment.Sony Corporation has developed a communication structure identified in its HRM policy to increase the effectiveness of communication among its emp loyees in regional offices and production sites located in China. Employees are presumption combined training sessions, and encouraged to participate in workshops which increases the communication among employees belonging to different cultures and understand their potential issues that may arise due to operations in international markets.Human resource ethical issue also has implication for firms either they operate locally or in international markets. Employee privacy, job safety, wellness standard, workplace environment and condition, legislation for employees rights protection are essential duties for senior management to address in strategic HR policy. This although may create true challenges to address by management but provide job satisfaction to employees policies amendment concerning addressing the ethical issues differ of country basis due to differing working demand and obligations by country law.However, an organization can standardize the procedure and policies giving protection to employees as its ethical responsibility. SHRM policy can emphasize on employee welfare fantasy that aimed at addressing the factors leading to increased employee living standard consequently, employee involvement in work increases and firms penetration power in international markets also strengthen due to direct participation of employees in organizational objectives achievement.

Sunday, May 26, 2019

A Rebuttal to Charles Darwin’s Theory of Evolution Essay

If theres one and only(a) thing that would chip in the highly religious person infuriated, that one thing would probably be the system of phylogenesis by Charles Darwin. Quite a rugged assumption but a little true nonetheless. Religion, as a social institution, derives much of its foundations on several bearings the most(prenominal) important being the Theory of Creationism. Under this surmise (or belief?), humanity, the universe and life in general were all created in their original form by an Almighty Being or by an Inevitable Force. Usually, this refers to the deity or deities of a certain(p) communes religious beliefs. The Theory of Evolution, on the other hand, portends that humanity, or life itself, emerged through a series of trial and errors wherein the fittest species among all others emerged victorious everywhere natures anarchic character. The idea of a certain animal branching off from its original species to formu young a different kind of inventory is what the T heory of Evolution calls Natural Selection. By Natural Selection, the theory excuses that certain unique features and/or characteristics induceed by a select few would necessarily allow them/it to have a higher chance of survival against those who do possess none of the said(prenominal) features and/or characteristics.For instance, assume that a species of birds uncannily produce a hatchling that possess a rather larger and longer beak than its original counterparts. By having this feature, the bird is now able to catch and eat much food as compared to the other birds of the same species that possess shorter and smaller (otherwise, normal) beaks. The theory claims that once this unique bird reproduces its own hatchlings, the unique features and characteristics it possessed would most likely be passed on thus, eventually perpetuating the idea of the introduction of a different kind of species of birds that possess longer and larger beaks.And since having longer and larger beaks e nables these birds (those which possess it) to catch, gather and eat more food, the natural balance of the food chain is automatically shifted unequally. Being that the birds with the shorter and smaller beaks will always be outcompeted by the innovative species with longer and larger beaks, the original species (otherwise, old) will probably end up being extinct.This idea is further supported by the theorys most famous notion, The Survival of the Fittest. In the simplest sense, the theory states that those who are genetically strong as compared to the others will be the ones who will survive. As applied in the case of the birds, it was the newly ariseed species which seemed to be the fittest against their original counterparts. As such, their survival was ensured branching off into a higher level of species and eliminating the rather weak species. brain the Theory of Evolution in its general sense is not an easy task. For one thing, the theory itself is now including several dif ferent kinds of supposed facts to support Charles Darwins original theory (now referred to as Neo-Darwinism). Furthermore, its underlying principles and hypotheses do not lie alone on biology but excessively on genetics and others. As if understanding the theory is hard enough, debunking the theory is an even harder task. Supporters of the Creationist Theory will always be under attack by the supporters of the Evolutionist Theory. This unbelievable lettering of faith and belief towards the Theory of Evolution is considered an awe just about phenomenon similar to that of Catholicisms rise as a predominant religion in the late Middle Ages. In other words, the Theory itself, ironically, is now becoming a religion in many ways. Henceforth, as hard as it is to debunk the Creationist Theory, the same will now be likewise to the Evolutionist Theory. Going back to the theorys initial stages, however, it would seem rather easy to refute Charles Darwins findings. Compared to the stipulatio n of the Theory of Evolution at present, the status of Darwins theory in the past (as he presented it) remained attractive to questions of veracity and factuality. For many, though it seemed credible, it was also contestable. First of all, Darwins Theory does not explain fully the derivation and/or origins of humankind as deduced from that of primates. Sure, there are many similarities existing between humans and Apes. scarce the Theory neer really explained why or how humankind technically branched off from the original species of primates. Even if we use the notion of Survival of the Fittest, none of the pieces still seem to fit. For instance, let us assume that a group of Chimpanzees produce an offspring that is clearly smarter than the rest of the clan. Now, that offspring immediately becomes the fittest among them. Still, it would be someway impossible to deduce that this special primate would reproduce a couple more uniquely smart primates that would eventually start an her editary daily round causing the well-nigh accidental creation of a new species.Even if that somehow became possible over a course of billions of years, it would still not explain how humankind developed a sense of wearing clothes, cook their food and establish a unique language that is clearly different to that of their original counterparts. Furthermore, some possible explanations regarding the loss of bodily hair, the shortening of the mandibles and other such anatomic inquiries remain in question for the theory. Second, the development of a certain organ was never fully explained by the great man himself. Take a look at birds, for instance. The development of birds, from land creatures to fowls of the air, is clearly unsupported by the theory. As the theory explains, evolution occurs overtime through a course of millions of years. If so, how did the development of travel benefit the earliest species of birds? Imagine an ancient bird that started growing small wings. Of course, since these are small, it cannot benefit the animal in any way other than be a burden. As such, the status of fittest is automatically removed.Ultimately, the species who were just starting to develop their own wings wouldve become extinct and lost to the supposed survival. On the other hand, looking at the picture the other way around, it seems almost impossible that a group of land creatures would suddenly hatch (or give birth) to an hatchling that naturally or immediately possess wings it would just not make sense. For the Theory of Evolution and the notion of Survival of the Fittest to work, organs and other characteristics must be present at once and not in a unremitting process that would take billions of years. Finally, the Theory of Evolution never really explained how the complex development of the human mind occurred. Just how exactly did human beings develop a sense of rationalization? How did they come to have a sense of beauty? How about a sense of free will? If h umans with mental disabilities insure to breed for thousands of years, would the existence of a unique race of mentally disabled men and women become a possibility? How did evolution come to develop a mind that is so complex and comprehensive as compared to other creatures? These are just some of the questions that truly pose a great threat to the Theory of Evolution (during Darwins time at least). When Charles Darwin presented his Theory to the Academic Community, the Theory of Evolution was not as strong as it was today. By all means, it was soft contestable. After a couple of decades, however, the Theory gained so many supporters that even the Scientific Community now almost completely adheres to its principles. Until the adherents of the Theory of Evolution do not find concrete answers to some of the questions posed above, the theory will forever only remain as such a theory. Similarly, the Creationist Theory also possesses the same dilemma. Clearly, that is one reason why bot h theories despite after several decades still continue to battle each other out for conquest (which is ironically a pun of the notion Survival of the Fittest itself).Cited SourcesCampbell, J. A. and Meyer, S. C. (2005) Evolution Debate it. USA Today December 5, 2007 from Dean, C. (2005) Opting Out in the Debate on Evolution. The bracing York Times December 5, 2007 from Futuyma, D. J. (2005). Evolution. Sunderland, Massachusetts Sinauer Associates, Inc.Scott, E. C. and Branch, G. (2005) Evolution Just Teach it. USA Today December 5, 2007 from Smith, J. M. (1993) The Theory of Evolution. Cambridge University PressWeiss, R. and Brown, D. (2005) New Analyses Bolster Central Tenets of Evolution Theory Washington Post December 5, 2007 from

Friday, May 24, 2019

Operatiom Process of Kfc Essay

Throughout the industry of spry-food, there were so many organisations which gained power and title for them, such as McDonald, pizza Hut, Burger King, Pizza Domino, etc. In the list of these successful fast-food organisations, KFC is also one of the best organisation which gained their title and power for more than 80 years. KFC is a chain of fast food eating go intos and first established known as Yum Brands. However, the organisation name has been change since 1952. Until now, KFC Kentucky Fried Chicken is the third largest fast-food organisation in the world.KFC has more than 14,000 outlets and in more than 80 countries around the world, serving about 12 million customers each day. (KFC Franchise Opportunity, 2007) PART 1 II BUILDING BLOCKS First of all, we penury to analyze the general process of KFC. For the customers order, customer can have many choices to order food and meal from KFC. They can choose to eat in KFC restaurant which the process was order food, pay for f ood, eating food and leave. Or customer may order for delivering with fast or normal service, for a familys meal or a party.More convenient, if customer is driving car, they can choose whether to park the car then dine in the restaurant or buying food by the fast service of KFC. * KFC general restaurant layout KFCs restaurant layout also has helped the organisation. In order to have a good layout, KFCs purpose was planning and arrangement of all machines, utilities, staff room, kitchen, customer service areas, material storage areas, aisles, restrooms, internal walls, offices, and children area, which aim for the good scarper of materials and customer.Moreover, also need to consider about the time, for example, demand for food of customer may high during breakfast, lunch and dinner. Parents may choose the KFC restaurant for running a birthday parties for their children on Saturday or Sunday and some other different event. By understanding the important of time and location, managem ent of KFC can determine what surface or how big their outlets should be in order to appropriate on each different circumstance and environment condition. * Value AddedThe capacity of KFC restaurant which operator how big the restaurant should be and where it should be locate is also important and contribute greatly to their operating management. If their outlets locate in a good place and got many good conditions for them such as skill labor, good supplier, high business climate or populated areas, their operating process will beguile started easier and more effectively. 4/ WORKFORCE KFC has a slogan for their employees were that makes more friends, earn some cash.

Thursday, May 23, 2019

Ernest Hemingway, a Legacy for American Literature Essay

Some say that Hemingways personal sustenance should disqualify him from the literature canon. They state that his flowage affairs, his alcoholism, and his mental state should preclude him from entry into the canon. These are the very things that help to make Hemingway a unique generator. Although his genre is fiction, he relies on his real spirit experiences with the people and places that he visited. The very definition of the literary canon disputes these critics. The authors that represent the literary canon are those that are widely assigned in laid-back school and college classrooms and have had a great influence on former(a) authors.Literary critics and historians frequently and fully discuss them. The works by these authors are close likely to be included in anthologies and studied as World Masterpieces, Major English Authors, or Great American Writers. (Goodvin) Hemingways influences on new(prenominal) generators and his worldwide acclaim, along with his distinctive style have earned him a spot in the American Literature canon. Ernest Hemingway was once wholeness of the most bombastic people on the earth. Numerous countries respect Hemingway and his writing style. His creative writing details the lives and lifes littleons of people such as bullfighters, anglers, and soldiers.His portrayal of these men of courage who were seemingly indifferent to joy, grief, pleasure, and pain won him acclaim from critics all over the world. His legendary writing style, influenced by Ezra Pound and Gertrude Stein, (American Authors) is direct, to the point, and spoken in an until now tone. This style is suited to his main subject matter. His straightforward no frills writing style became so well known that many others frequently copied it. Some literary critics consider Hemingway, as the father of The Lost Generation, a subcategory, of the American Modernist Period in literature. (Goodvin) Hemingways literary legacy is his off hand, direct story vocalizing prose, which has been a helpful model for numerous novelist of the twentieth century. The impact of Hemingways style on American Literature is massive. It still has influence immediately. (American Authors) His style influenced so many authors that his style is in a great deal of fiction today written by other authors who copied it. Some of the authors of today are influenced any directly by Hemingway or indirectly through other writers who emulated his style.James Nagel, Professor of American Literature at the University of Georgia, express it best,No other writer has equaled Hemingway in portraying a cultural image that links the time-honored masculine virtues of power, honesty, and fortitude. His writings reveal an unwavering commitment to literature and to the integrity of his craft. He captures the essence of the human experience in a writing style that is uncomplicated, direct, modest, and pleasingly stylish. Hemingway learned to write in controlled and understated prose as a give birth reporter for the Kansas City Star. This style has served him well and he used it in the best of his works.Hemingways simple style, absent of elaborate extremes and metaphoric add-ons has influenced many of todays reporters in almost all multi media such as newspapers, magazines and even television news. The refinement of Hemingways writing style draws from the precision with which he illustrates the character, personality, and personality of individual experience. In his own time, Hemingway affected writers within his modernist literary circle. According to Kenneth Lynn, James Joyce called A Clean, Well Lighted Place, one of the best stories ever written.Hemingways style portrayed the truth of the situation. He influenced writers such as Jack Kerouac, The Subterraneans (1958) (American Authors), and other Beat Generation writers. J. D. Salinger, writer of The Catcher in the Rye (1951), is said to have wanted to be a great American short story writer in the same st ratum as Hemingway. (Qtd Lynn 416) Hemingways bold prose style is known to have inspired Bret Easton Ellis, Less than Zero (1985), Chuck Palahniuk, Fight Club (1996), Douglas Coupland, Generation X Tales for an Accelerated Culture (1991) and many other Generation X writers. (Burgess) Even when Hemingway was in his early stages of writing, when he was just developing into the writer he would become, noned novelist such as Stein, Ford, Ezra Pound, F. Scott Fitzgerald, and James Joyce proclaimed him the next great American novelist. (Burgess) Hemingways influence goes beyond the more recognized fiction authors. His tightly written prose is in quite a phone number of Western and Crime genre novels by Elmore Leonard. (American Authors) Leonard once said, I learned by imitating Hemingway? Although, I didnt take myself or anything as seriously as he did. (Qtd. Burgess) Hemingways impact on Latin American Literature can be seen in the works of Gabriel Garcia Marquez, who imitated Hemin gways view of mans struggle with the sea in many of his novels. Marquez not only emulates Hemingways view, he also duplicates his writing style. (Burgess) Hemingways first three books, Three Stories and ten dollar bill Poems (1923), In Our Time (short stories, 1924), and The Torrents of Spring (a novel, 1926), had fascinated critics chiefly because of his literary style. Hemingways first novel, The Sun Also Rises (1926), won him worldwide fame.A plot less story concerning disheartened refugees in Paris who break away from their boredom with alcohol consumption, fighting, and sex this novel turned out to be the standard by which all other writers of the lost generation would be compared. Hemingway only improved his writing style with his next book, A Farewell to Arms (1929), based on his wartime experience in Italy. His coverage of the Spanish Civil War as a correspondent spawned another fine novel, For Whom the Bell Tolls (1940). Hemingways novella, The Old bit and the Sea, (1952) first published in Life magazine and was never meant to be a book.It is a fundamental story about an elderly Cuban fisher the book won the Pulitzer Prize. According to Lynn, it was mentioned as one of the reasons he was awarded the 1954 Nobel Prize for literature. (Burgess) Hemingway also published several other short stories, which glorify masculinity, courage, and the value of life itself. Although, some of these short stories are not as popular as his novels, they do play an integral role in understanding just how spacious Hemingways influence on American Literature has been.Although Hemingway has many works, his truth in writing always remains the same. His portrayal of life has also been significant, for he portrays a truthful world of selfishness and hostility, of conflict that naturally occurs in relationships and the cruelty of war, which has everlasting effects on the psyche of his major characters. His theme of the effects of force out and the consequences of greed has a profound effect in the lives of his characters. Jake Barnes is sexually dysfunctional in The Sun Also Rises, and he cries in the private over his infatuation for Brett Ashley.In A Farewell to Arms, Frederic Henry has seen the destruction of war, which pales in comparison to the loss of the one woman he loved. In For Whom the Bell Tolls there is not only the loss to the people of Spain, there is a private defeat as well, as Robert Jordan is about to die just as he finds his one true love in Maria. In The Old Man and the Sea, Hemingway depicts an aged Santiago searching for dignity in old age. He must arrive at a long fight with a marlin to prove, one final time, that he can still be a functional member of society.It is as writer that Hemingway merits the consideration of the American Literature canon. He is defiantly one of the best prose stylists in American Literature. His astonishing short stories portray the agonizing realities of his age and forces into human beings view a comprehension of the realities of war. The exploits of Nick Adams paint a picture of the agonies faced by the adolescents of his generation Hemingways four most popular novels reconstruct the distressing confusion of life, for all time.Hemingway makes clear in The Old Man and the Sea that even in the distress of life there can be dignity in determination and pride in dedication when performing a task, which everyone says cannot be done. As a novelist, Hemingway was perfection. It is in the truthfulness, which he approaches his writing and the expertise above all, which will carry on. Works Cited American Authors. Ernest Hemingway. All Experts Encyclopedia. 1999. 21 Mar. 2007 http//en. allexperts. com/e/e/er/ernest_hemingway. htmhd9 Burgess, Anthony Ernest Hemingway and His World. 1st ed. 1978.Norwich Thames and Hudson. The capital of South Carolina Electronic Encyclopedia. 6th Ed. Ernest Hemingway. Columbia University Press. 2003. 20 Mar. 2007 www. cc. columbia. edu/cu/cup/ Go odvin, Renee. A Canon of Classic Novels. The Literary Explorer. The Blonde Librarian. 2005. 19 Mar. 2007. http//literaryexplorer. blondelibrarian. net/classicnovels. html Lynn, Kenneth. Hemingway United States Harvard. 2002 Nagel, James. Ernest Hemingway A Centennial Assessment. Hemingway a Retrospective CNN. com. 1999. 23 Mar. 2007http//www. cnn. com/SPECIALS/books/1999/hemingway/stories/nagel/index. html

Wednesday, May 22, 2019

Cardiac Catheterization

Cardiac catheterization is often referred to as coronary angiography or a coronary angiogram. It is a radiographic number that is use to look at and visualize the kernel and the coronary arteries. During a cardiac catheterization it is manageable for the heart surgeon performing the procedure to see how effectively line is pay heeding through the coronary arteries. In addition, this procedure leave behinds the cardiologists to see how blood is moving through the chambers of the heart and how effective the heart valves ar functioning.A cardiac catheterization gutter also allow for the visualization of the movement of the walls of the heart to see if the pumping action of the heart is normal. The primary application of cardiac catheterization is to determine if there is the front man of coronary artery disease. If there is occlusion of the coronary arteries this is the result of atherosclerosis, or memorial tablet build up wi trim down the coronary arteries. During a cardia c catheterization it is possible for the physician to identify the location and size of these plaque deposits.The presence of plaque within the coronary arteries contribute lead to a myocardial infarction therefore, if the plaque buildup is substantial, therapeutic action has to be taken. This treatment may include coronary bypass surgery if the coronary artery disease is widespread and or the arteries are occluded to a large degree. A large number of patients who do have coronary artery disease are do by in the cardiac cath lab during the catheterization with procedures such as percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and angioplasty with stenting and artherectomy.Angioplasty is performed by inserting a catheter into the coronary artery that is blocked. The catheter has balloon that can be inflated where the hitch is present. The pressure from the inflated balloon will force the plaque to the sides of the coronary artery. This will allow the artery to open and allow for increase d blood run for through that branch of the coronary arteries. Once the plaque is moved aside the cardiologist will insert a tiny expandable wire pipage known as a stent. The stent will be placed where it can be expanded to hold the artery open.Some stents are designed to scarce keep the artery held open. Other stents used are drug-eluting stents. These stents are coated with pharmacologic agents that work to prevent restenosis of the artery. Another form of PCI is artherectomy. This is a procedure that has a cardiologist using a cutting blade that spins rapidly or a laser beam to cut off or burn away plaque that is blocking a branch of the coronary arteries. To perform a cardiac catheterization the patient is brought to the cardiac catheterization lab. These procedures are performed by specially trained cardiologists, nurses and radiologic technologists.The procedure is performed on a specialized table with fluoroscopy equipment, cardiac monitoring equipment, and the use of comp uterized technology to assist in data and image collection and analysis. To perform a cardiac catheterization the cardiologist will insert a sheath, or a short tube usually into the femoral artery. A long very thin catheter will then be provide through the sheath and guided through the arteries until it is in the heart and coronary arteries. The physician uses fluoroscopy equipment to guide the catheter into the coronary arteries.To allow for clear viewing of the coronary arteries, contrast material is injected into the catheter. As the contrast material flows through the heart chambers and coronary arteries x-rays are taken. The physician can than visualize the heart, valve function, and the flow through the coronary arteries. Any obstructions in the coronaries will become readily visible. The contrast material used to allow for the visualization of blood flow is iodine based and is flushed through the patients system rather quickly once the test is completed.The contrast material will be injected into the catheter that has been fed into the heart. As the contrast material flows through the heart x-rays are taken as a motion picture. This allows the cardiologist to not only visualize the flow of blood through the heart and coronary arteries, but the wall motion and valve function can be seen as well. This component of a cardiac catheterization is the veritable coronary angiogram. If there is coronary artery disease, which is a blockage in some branch or branches of the coronary arteries, these blockages will be visible during the angiogram.The cardiologist performing the procedure will then determine the course of therapy to enhance blood flow through the coronaries. In mild cases, the patients may be treated medically with no cardiac catheterization intervention. In more severe cases the cardiologist might perform angioplasty with stenting. In those cases where stent placement cannot be done, or if the coronary artery disease is too widespread, then corona ry artery bypass surgery might be warranted. A cardiac catheterization generally takes about 30 minutes.It can take longer if the cardiologist has to perform angioplasty and place multiple stents. Following the procedure the patient may remain in the hospital overnight or they may be able to go home after a few hours of recovery time. Most cardiac catheterizations are done via catheter insertion into the femoral artery. When the procedure is completed the sheath will be removed and the entry site will be closed with the application of pressure and a surgical seam device or plug. A cardiac catheterization is an invasive procedure done in a sterile O. R. like environment.Although, the complications are rare, they do exist. Complications include sensitized reaction to the contrast material, irregular heart rhythm, bleeding where the catheter was removed, infection, coronary artery spasm or acute closure, a tear and bleeding, and the need for emergency heart surgery. However, the bene fits far out weigh the risks. The clinical information that this gold standard test provides about the heart, and the ability to open coronary arteries without surgery makes this procedure hypercritical for those who are believed to have heart disease.

Tuesday, May 21, 2019

Waste banana plant (Musa sp.) Trunks as an Alternative source of pulp for paper making Essay

Edible Banana (Musa sp.) the give is a gigantic herb that springs from an underground stem, or rhizome, to form a false trunk 36 meters (1020 feet) high (Encyclopedia Britannica, 2006). Bananas cannot be grown anywhere beca intention they are very sensitive to strong winds, hence, if arrangeed on open areas, one must use windbreakers for the banana plant not to be harmed, the plant can be also planted on dry lands provided that there is a stable irrigation (Department of Agri-culture, 2010). report is a genuine made of cellulose slop, derived mainly from wood, rags and certain grasses, processed into flexible sheets or rolls by deposit from an aqueous suspension (Encyclopedia Britannica, 2008).It is the most widely apply material by mankind since its discovery in China. The average dimensions of a letter sized paper is 8.27*11.69mmThe aim of this study is to find out if the pulp from trunk banana is suitable for paper production.Statement of ProblemGeneral ObjectiveThis study primarily aims to find out if pulp from the banana guide trunk is a better alternative than wood pulp Specific Objectives1.) This study aims to find out if paper produce using banana plant trunks pulp is more economic than the commercially utilize tree trunk pulp 2.) And to find out what is better 100% banana plant trunk pulp of banana tree trunk pulp plus recycled paper. HypothesisThe paper made in this study will be more cost efficient than paper mass produce by companies using commercial grade wood pulp Significance of the study The paper made from the waste banana plant trunk pulp will Increase the income of the Banana farmers here in the Philippines because instead of simply discarding the Banana plant short pants after harvesting the ripe bananas, they could sell it to factories for added income Scope and Limitation of the StudyThis study is only limited to the use banana plant trunks and recycled paper in the creation of paper that will be produce by this study.Definition of termsBanana-a treelike tropical palm with large leaves and flowering clusters that develop into a bunch of finer shaped fruit which are yellow or red when ripe(Websters New encyclopedic Dictionary, 1999). Wood Pulp-a material prepared by chemical or mechanical means chiefly from wood and used in make paper and cellulose products (Websters New Encyclopedic Dictionary, 1999).Review of Related Literature and Review of Related StudiesBanana (Musa sp.)Name for several species of the genus Musa and for the fruits these produce. The banana plant-one of the largest herbaceous plants-is said to be native in tropical Asia, but is now cultivated throughout the tropics (The Free Dictionary 2010). Wood PulpPulp from wood used in making cellulose derivatives (as paper or rayon) Mold and DeckleA mold is a wooden frame with wire mesh stretched on it while a deckle edge is just a wooden frame the same size as the mold but is has no wire mesh stretched over it. Related Studies in that respect is a study conducted by the students of University of Cordoba and University of Pablo, Spain (2012) to characterize the banana plant residues and use it in pulping and combustion processes.Another study conducted by the North East skill and technology Institute (2008) which aims to make grease proof paper out of banana pulp fiber.MethodologyTools and MaterialsThe waste banana plant trunk that was used in this study were taken from Brgy. Punta Tabuc, Roxas City, Capiz. The materials that were a machete,3 pcs lower banana plant trunks, a deckle, 3 pcs 107 silk screen and mesh wire screen molds, a large stainless steel pot and sodium hydroxide.

Monday, May 20, 2019

Cultural competence Essay

This paper explores the Hmong hoi pollois views toward treat within the cryst entirelyine lens of their husbandry. It will take into account their bill and too bring outk to explain the natural aversion these nation thrust to most modern techniques in medicine. The Hmong population find a large immigrant people in the United States and represent unique challenges to most medical practiti hotshotrs that can be used as a model to teach new methods of treating patients who may not understand western medicine. consciousness the Hmong is the first note in devising split up techniques for defends and other wellness professionals who seek to provide the best standard of administer to all peoples in a safe, professional and cooperative way. Medical Views of the Hmong People The Importance of Cross-Cultural Understanding As the United States becomes a more racially and ethnically diverse nation, health c are systems and providers mustiness adapt to be subject to better care for patients with regard to their perspectives, values, and cultures.Failure to understand and manage hearty and cultural differences may have significant health consequences to the patient and could lead to ineffectual practices in the language of care. This is particularly significant in the treating of patients from the Hmong ethnic group. Whose cultural beliefs and practices are oft opposed to the methods of modern U. S. Medicine. The Hmong people are made up of peoples from China, Vietnam, Laos, and Thailand. Indigenous to South East Asia, numerous of them resided in Laos until 1975 when Pathet Lao came into causality and began to persecute them for their involvement (on behalf of the United States) in Vietnam.As a result of this political crackdown many Hmong fled Laos and have been accepted as refugees in many western countries including the United States. Although they are a largely diaspora population they have managed to hold onto their cultural traditions as well as assimilated (partially) to the culture s of their home countries. These traditions are passed down from elders to youth and are a strong pillar through which the Hmong are able to prevent their history and community.Currently there are 245,000 Hmong people residing in the United States, most of which live in California, Minnesota and Washington. As their numbers grow so does the importance of dynamic care practices that can better suit their medical needs. The Hmong are a primarily Shamanistic culture, with a strong reverence for familial invigorate. Their beliefs in enliven are not regulated to simply deceased family members, but in all things both animate and inanimate. These spirits reside in a mirrored Spirit realm, where the spirits of their ancestors and also that of trees dwell.The individual is thought to have multiple spirits residing in them that regulate both the phantasmal and sensible health of the person. Illness is thought to come from evil spirits who attempt t o harm the immanent spirits that reside in individuals body. These spirits are the hit of all nausea and outlive in the spirit realm. It is to be noted that these spirits exist on the same plane as regular mortals, however the deity Saub made us blind to them after conflicts between the spirits and the mortals. It is altogether through the utilization of shamans that we may access them, and treat illness.As the malevolent spirits descend on the body, they may cause the native spirits to leave their human host, this is thought to be manifested in the somatic world as serious illness. The Hmong believe that illness is intrinsically linked with a spiritual imbalance, thusly the Shaman is called upon to conduct rituals to bring back the wayward spirit and to discern the cause of its leaving. These beliefs can be in direct opposition to the belief of modern medicine, which relies heavily on scientific and empirical evidence.The unbiased diagnosis of illness can be greatly impeded when the patient believes that their rash comes from evil spirits as opposed to the contact of a poisonous material. Also this can breed a normal distrust of western medication, when for centuries the answers to illness have always lied with the shaman and not with pills and elixirs. The language rampart also is challenging, but in a novel way, whole concepts in the Hmong culture are untranslatable, and the nuances in regional practices of the Hmong make each group individual in their phrasings and pronunciations.Even with the assistance of a native translator many concepts remain completely lost in translation, especially for American nurses who are often the first line of care for these people. Traditionally when a Hmong person becomes sick they are taken to see the community Shaman. The Shaman is considered a very substantial member of Hmong society as they are able to communicate and travel with spirits. They serve the role of both doctor and priest in that they care for the corporeal and spiritual wellorganism of the person.Because of the link between spiritual and physical illness, it is held that the main means to achieve health wellness is through ritual to appease the spirits. This can be dangerous to the person as their illness may go undiagnosed and untreated as the afflicted wait for the results of the ritual to affect them. Among the largest problems with treating the Hmong is noncompliance, as their tradition may prevent them from actually utilizing the medicine given to them from western hospitals and pharmacies. The treatment of psychological disorders in the Hmong people also poses a unique challenge to western health professionals.In the Hmong tradition those with undetermined psychological illnesses such as bi-polar disorder, schizophrenia, multiple personality disorder, and some neurological disorders (i. e. epilepsy) are considered to be chosen to become shamans. The symptoms with these maladies are often closely associated with sp iritual intervention such as multiple personalities exhibited being the manifestation of different spirits attempting to possess the body, or epileptic seizures being a communication from spiritual forces.This has caused these disorders to be revered in the Hmong tradition and have led to many of them going undiagnosed. The usual protocol for such episodes are for the child (as these ailments often present themselves in childhood) to be blessed and sent to get wind with a shaman teacher, so that they may use their gifts for the community and become a shaman themselves. As shamans are highly prise and important members of the community any attempt to stifle or pass their gifts can be construed as going against the wishes of ancestral spirits.To have a shaman in ones family is considered one of the highest honors, thus creating a situation where the illness goes both undiagnosed and untreated. Interactions between American health professionals and the Hmong people have even been d ocumented in the nurse The Spirit Catches You and You Fall Down by Anne Fadiman where culture clashes between ignorant parents and culturally insensitive medical staff ends very tragically for a juvenile girl diagnosed with epilepsy.The combination of the Hmong parents unwillingness to trust the medicines of the Merced doctors and doctors unwillingness to understand the culture of the Hmongs and to tailor the care of the missy unfortunately end in the girl in a vegetative state. This book goes through the history of the Hmong and makes the reader understand the nature aversion they have to medicines. To them healing is their religion, and to these people the American method of medicine is entirely too invasive.They feel we cut and defile bodies, we take too much blood and we cause dramatic personality changes with our drugs. This failure to understand these concerns is damning for Lia Lee (the little girl) and led to both noncompliance and also fear about regarding possible surge ries for the very young child. This book is assigned reading for many medical programs and is compelling read, The importance of its theme of cultural understanding cannot be stressed enough.When Lia was brought to the emergency mode for the last time, the staff at the hospital assumed that she had a big seizure because of her parents unwillingness to give her seizure medications that had been prescribed. They all silently agreed that it was just a matter of when. It was to the shame of many and a shock to Neil Ernst and his wife Peggy Philp when another neurologist who had treated Lia previously announced that it was infective shock and not under medication that had caused the big one.The fact that Neil Ernst did order a unhealthful workup on Lia indicated that he was not treating her symptoms but was had used previous experience with the parents noncompliance as all- purpose explanation that blinded him from seeing exploring other more obvious possibilities of Lia illness. The role of the nurse as educator is paramount in these situations. A nurse when performing her role in the health care setting always has the opportunity to bridge the gap between the patient and the physcians.Anne Fadiman after researching the book for eight years ascertains that We do not know if Lia would be able to walk and talk today had she been treated by Arthur Kleinman instead of by Neil Ernst and Peggy Philp. However, I have come to believe that her life was washed-up not by septic shock or noncompliant parents but by cross-cultural misunderstanding. In modern medicine there has been an increased prominence put in patient education and understanding. What could have saved Lias life is a more tailored course of treatment that both respected her families beliefs while also allowing for the benefits of modern medicine.When helping patients it is always important to respect their cultures and traditions, but it is more important to build understanding between their traditions and what will best allow them to get better. Nurses can play the sterling(prenominal) role in building cross-cultural trust, when they (as the first line of care) educate patients on their medications and dietary recommendations. In a more diverse America we will need more Nurses to be able to not only respect cultural boundaries, but foster cultural cooperation to better treat all patients.

Case Study of Architect Christopher Lee

Under takingSpeculating architectureIntroductionThis undertaking attempts to convey an apprehension of architects architectural theory by a direct observation and analysis of his ego and buildings. Architecture and urban signifiers in comparison to architectural theories is discussed in the undermentioned authorship. The relationship between architecture and its societal, cultural and rational linguistic mise en scene is besides analyzed and critiqued in the authorship to construe the architects architecture in relation to relevant theories within the modern-day.Architect Christopher downwind is selected to discourse his architecture in relation with theories. He is the co-founder of Serie Architects, taking his design squad in London, Mumbai and Beijing unneurotic with his spouse Kapil Gupta, doing a grade for him either everyplace the universe. He is a re eachy experient international pattern based in London and has interesting works experience in his life of being a su ccessful designer. His tin involved in polar undertaking all everyplace the universe. Some representative plants of them include The Tote in India, BMW Olympic marquise in London, the Monsoon Club installing in United State and Yan ZhenQing Museum in China.Among Chris Lees fashionable plants, Aarvli Re block out is selected to analyze and analyse its theories of architecture. Aarvli Resort is a 9000sqm Eco-resort, located within the Konkan seashore, the western coast course of instruction country of India. It is a new belongings of India by an International group of Resort, Formento Resorts. The sensitive design on the typography is the head topographic point of this resort. The resort is presently afoot as of last month of building.ClimateAarvli resort, an Eco-resort, has intentional responsively to the local anesthetic anaesthetic clime of Goa, India. Goa, the smallest province in India by country, enjoys a tropical monsoon clime under the Koppen clime miscellany that fea tures a intent and humid conditions for most of the twelvemonth with two distinguishable eras, the dry season and the monsoon season.As to plan the device closely follow the contours of its mountain-side scene, the edifice has a compelling curvilineal program. The longitudinal grow of edifice is orientated to East and West to acquire the maximal enjoyment of congenital palpable radiation. imputable to its curvilineal signifier, the come nears of edifice ar every bit loose to maximum sunshine. However, Chris Lee has efficaciously uses the constitution elements on site to minimise the heat addition to its edifice. Vegetation on site has shaded non except the lift of edifice, it provides greenery position towards the suites and unexclusive infinites of the resort, gives merger of interior and exterior. Effective usage of court of laws and fanlight within the curved program besides introduces indirect visible radiation into interior infinite, increases the light quality of infinites. The staggered placement of undulating ornament jacket plane provides shadowing for lower rooftops and sleep with down solar addition, insulates from internal heat lose.Goa goes through the monsoon season at the center of twelvemonth, June till September. The degree of critical tropical conditions is reduced particularly July which the seat of government gets non more than three hours of sunshine per xxiv hours. The urban center receives maximal rainfall through out(a) the twelvemonth and pushes humidity up. The smooth curve signifier program which portion of the roof merged into the landscape equipped the roof with genius gutter , reassigning the rain H2O flow to landscape environing during this season, with the aid of proper drainage clay every bit good. Plants of green roof besides act as H2O soaking up every bit good as humid soaking up during this moisture and humid season of Goa.The typography of Maharashtra Coastal creates the phenomena of land and sea pushover. Chris Lee has deliberated this vivid phenomenon into his design. Round courtyard is knowing to bow out sea zephyr from west lift, unfastened pool and landscape to lineage out the edifice during cardinal hours pinch. Curve signifier of roof designed follows the air current motion to guarantee land zephyr ventilates the inwardly through courtyards during dark clip.Theories Critical RegionalismIn Critical Analysis of Towards a Critical Regionalism Six Points for an Architecture of Resistance, the fifth point indicated civilization versus nature Topography, Context, Climate, Light and Tectonic Form.Critical regionalism should follow modern architecture, critically, for its widely distributed progressive qualities but at the same clip value should be enured(p) on the geographical context of the building ( Frampton, 1981 )Emphasis, Frampton ( 1981 ) says,should be on topography, clime, visible radiation on tectonic signifier sort of than on scenography and should b e on the sense of touch instead than ocular sense.In footings of civilization, the acceptance of local architecture layout has demonstrated in the planning of Aarvli Resort. In India traditional house Nakarattar house has inner and outmost suites in the center of the program surrounded with few courtyards. Chris Lee imitates the similar stool, Numberss of secluded invitee suites atomic number 18 planned together with an unfastened eat courtyard within a round layout of planning. Similar to Aarvli townsfolk Hall, it is influenced by twain Finnish slang architecture and the humanist Italian Renaissance. Aalto drew inspiration for the courtyard agreement in his edifice layout surrounded with the elevated courtyard.Building feature of speechs has been study to discourse on how these edifice designs has incorporated the civilization with its nature and environment. As Goa receives tropical weathers which most of the months are exposed to sunlight, the acceptance of local archi tecture which courtyards and fanlights are features to present indirect sunshine into the enclosed inside. Enclosed secluded suites are planned in between the edifice to avoid direct heat addition from the conditions. eyepatch Saynatsalo town house located at Finland receives 4 seasons, Aalto has sufficient usage of fanlight to better the inside light quality during spend.But underneath signifiers in all ages were certain conditions which determined the. In them drop by the waysides all human spirit in agreement with which they came to be and where the signifiers were true signifiers, they impart be found to be constituent(a) signifiers an branch, in another(prenominal) words, of conditions of life and work they arose to expressWright ( 1910 ) wrote on a monograph of his work publish in Germany. Aarvli Resort unsexd as organic architecture non merely of its unstable signifier and curvilineal program, but besides on how the construction allows certain activities to reside topographic point within in and around the environment of it. In-filled roof of Aarvli Resort looks athe likes of(p) the construction is portion of the landscape. Chris Lee presents his edifice in wave-like sort of signifier as to unify context to the dramatically typography of Maharashtra. Chris Lee has sensitively defern consideration of nature context in footings of the circulation planning of the edifice. He plans that all public infinites include anteroom, dining country, and out-of-door activities are planned at outer layer of the resort program to guarantee all infinites are surrounded by nature context, the flora and coastal. He wants to stress the interaction of nature with the inside, leting circulation to take topographic point in and around it. The Saynatsalo Town Hall by Alvar Aalto, is declared as organic architecture as good yet the edifice are purely rectilineal composings. The composing of Saynatsalo town house is performed in the manner of upright and horizont al, following the verticalness of wooded hillside of Saynatsalo. He planned the private infinites, the flats, into the wooded hillside of Saynatsalo which does non let effectual circulation but provide good position to abodes of level. At the same clip public infinites include town hall, stores, and library are placed towards land land which provide equalise circulation. Puting of courtyard as Centre of program besides provides public circulation within private territory. In comparison, both designers have planned the infinites respectfully with site typology.2.3 Design Strategy TypographyAarvli Resort is designed utilizing an good program that makes the construction blend in respectfully with the environing natural environment without giving the spacial qualities that allow visitants to bask their stay to the upper limit.Curvilineal circulation spinal column is used to specify a serial of public and private infinite. As discussed in melodic theme before, Chris Lee has take con sideration of nature context into its circulation planning in the manner that public infinites surrounded by nature context and private infinites are placed in between to pull people to public infinites. The crystalline development of nature and construction quip the smooth experience of inside and outside to appreciate the natural environment. Round courtyards are designed as shaded dining and diversion country at the same clip blended with verdant hills to the E and South, conveying nature into the spaces.Sea-facing swimming pools and H2O characteristics allocated towards Arabian Sea allows birds-eye positions, creates the notioning of eternity pool. parking area smooth-curvy roof is designed to synthesise the construction into contour of site, besides supplying better insularity and cut down heat addition.Due to the geographical status of Maharashtra Coastal, air current motions are different during cardinal hours and dark, the land and sea zephyr. Design schemes have been ca refully considered to to the full use the zephyr for both 24 hours and dark clip to air out the edifice. To acquire the maximal usage of sea zephyr during twenty-four hours clip, unfastened landscape and pools at the forepart of the resort, confronting towards Arabian Sea allows cool air to magnetic flux through the edifice. No constructions are built at the front lift to avoid any obstruction of air flow. Round unfastened dining courtyard at the dorsum of the edifice allows venturi consequence to air out the edifice efficaciously from forepart to back. On the other manus, land zephyr from hills draws into edifice throught the smooth full-bosomed signifier of rooftop landscape into the courtyards and to better aerate of interior infinites during dark clip. The maestro usage of nature airing has fulfilled its demand as an Eco-resort.DiscussionAs Chris Lee travels a batch and educated in different cultural background since immature, he learnt that it is of import that architecture be at the same time relevant to its urban context, cultural and geographical status into his design. Together with the define of organic architecture of Wright, Chris Lee has demonstrated the 5th point of critical regionalism, civilization versus nature, follow cultural context and appreciate the natural environment together following modern architecture in most of his work design. In an statement of Chris Lee topic Typological Urbanism , he argue that as metropoliss owe their chief characteristic to geographical and topographical conditions, and are ever linked to other metropoliss by trade and resources, they tend to specialise and organize a distinguishable character. The usage of an advanced program in Aarvli Resort allows the creative activity of a edifice that is extremely respectful of its sensitive natural context but that besides enjoys distinguishable spacial qualities that leave do it a premium finish in the part ( Furuto, 2012 ) . Including the undertaking of Aarvli Resort that he adapted local civilization, he has lead his design squad, Serie Architect, in state of UK, India and China, planing non merely edifices and besides urban be aftering mentioning on the metropoliss characteristic and context. He ever make that his edifice are able to reflect the common architecture in a modern-day manner.A metropolis is an accumulation of the accomplishments and battles of its citizens in reinforced signifier. This must be do seeable in an architecture that acts as an inclusive frameworkdescribed Chris Lee ( 2011 ) in his denomination My sort of City . He extremely appreciates the distinctive of the metropolis and translates the linguistic communication into his construction, stating the narrative of non merely the client, besides the nature and metropolis, giving a unblemished combination of these factors and linguistic communications in his work.As decision, Chris Lee theory of design is to interpret the common linguistic communication into his des ign and interpret it into a modern and modern-day manner of design at the same clip appreciate the typography as factor of his design. His design can be conclude that he has demonstrated the theory of civilization versus nature direct and indirectly with his ain definition of modern-day manner of design.4.0 MentionFuruto, Alison. Aarvli Resort / Serie Architects 02 Nov 2012.ArchDaily. Accessed 18 Jun 2014. hypertext designate protocol // ? p=284569Designboom ( 1999-2012 ) . Retrieved from hypertext transfer protocol // Architect. ( 2012 ) Aarvli Estates Retrieved from hypertext transfer protocol hypertext transfer protocol //, C. ( June 2011 ) My sort of city . Retrieved from hypertext transfer protocol // ? p=16420Davies, Colin ( 2011 ) . Thinking about Architecture An Introduction to architectural hypothesis. Laurence queer Publishing, London.Jacoby, S. , & A Lee, C. M. ( 2011 ) .Typological urbanism projective metropoliss / guest-edited by Christopher CM Lee and Sam Jacoby. Chichester Wiley, 2011.Kate, N. 1997. Speculating a New Agenda for Architecture An Anthology of Architectural Theory 1965-1995. Princeton Architectural Press. New York.Frampton, K. Towards a critical regionalism Six Points for An Architectural of Resistance . Retrieved from hypertext transfer protocol // % 20in % 20Theory/Frampton.pdfCase Study of Architect Christopher LeeTHEORIES OF ARCHITECTURE AND URBANISM1.0 IntroductionChristopher Lee is an immigrant designer from Malaysia. He was born and raised in Taiping Perak. He graduated with AA Diplona ( honours ) from AA. Lee finish his Doctor of Philosophy in Architecture and Urbanism from the Berlage Institute and TU Delft. His favourite designers are Rem Koolhaas, Kazuo Sejima and Ryue Nishizawa. Chris Lee is the beginner of SERIE ARC HITECTS based in London with his spouse Kapil Gupta. The house s undertakings now span all over the universe with committees in India, China, Eastern Europe and United Kingdom. SERIE is known for their theoretical position that emphasizes the survey of edifice typologies and their development.The selected edifice to be discuss in this paper is Yan ZhenQing Museum which located in Linyi, Shandong Province, China. The museum is set on a hilly site with 8,265 square metre in Linyi. Yan ZhenQing was an of import calligraphist during eighth century who lived in Shandong Province in China. The museum house a aggregations of the calligraphist s plants. In his calligraphic book has steadfast kernel of perpendicular element.The designer use the local civilization and the calligraphist s character into the architecture.The shoot for of this paper was to analyse the external contributing factors that affect in design schemes of the museum and its theories of architecture that applied in the design. The impact of clime, theories and societal civilization towards the edifice were investi doorwayd through a series of diagrams.2.0 ANAYSIS2.1 ClimateLinyi has seasonal mutant clime with overheating hot, humid summer and underheating cold, dry winter. The clime affects constructing orientation, size and place of fenestration and facade stuffs. Yan ZhenQing Museum is placed on a series of three patios that rise jolly above the topography that merged closely with the terrain of site. for each one degree of patio contain marquees that placed following to each other along the terrain to minimise the E and west facade country in order to cut down the heat addition during the hot summer season. When the marquees are set following to each other, shaded countries are created between the passage infinites so the visitants feel more confidant with the environing landscape.At the exhibition marquees, the aggregations of artefacts are protected from direct sunshine. The solution is to make advanced ceiling with fanlights for the marquees to present natural daytime indirectly. The fanlights are unfastened up at the West like a paper tossing up from the surface. The daylight strength inside the edifice impart alter throughout the twenty-four hours when the place of the Sun changed to enrich the poetic feeling in the museum. The marquees are largely dish out up with solid wall with merely a few gaps. This is to forestall heat loss during the winter clip.The agreement of the marquees in a random mode like turn overing dies have high effectiveness to capture more air current. Besides, it allows more air current to flux through the surrounding from peck way. In comparing, edifice blocks that arranged in bunch mode restricted the air current to flux around the marquees. The marquees rise somewhat harmonizing to the topography besides helps to maximise the air current gaining control during summer as they did non blocked by opposite marquees.2.2 SOCIAL CULTUREThe i nterior layout of Yan ZhenQing Museum strongly reflects the ancient Chinese calligraphy composing. The infinites were divided orderly into a grid mode even the orientation of the marquees do non emphasis on the orderly subject of the Chinese penmanship composing. Yan ZhenQing s calligraphic book besides composed in a regular book. The designer wants to make a minimalist infinite with a simple layout to stand up the focal point on artefacts within a infinite. The exhibition hall can be define as a pure content and piss boundary line infinite with soft natural illuming from fanlight which allow the visitants to prosecute with the aggregations of art plants in a more poetic feeling. Furthermore, the reading subject of Chinese book besides influence the circulation of the museum. The Chinese books are read from right to go forth. So, the museum s human circulation flow besides tour the visitants from the right to the left and across the marquees. The marquees were designed into a perf ect square to reflect the Chinese regular book which is wrote in a regular column. The frontage of the marquees are fluted in a perpendicular manner to make a rhythmic form which similar to the calligraphic book perpendicular sequence. The form besides comparable to the traditional Chinese houses ceramic roofing tiles to qualifying a more cultural ambient to the museum.The spacial planning of the museum besides similar to the traditional Chinese Scholar s Garden and Chinese Courtyard House which the most private infinites and cherished objects are ever placed at the deepest terminal of the edifice. In a bookman s garden, an entryway hall for take the visitants is the most public topographic point and following by several marquees and gardens before reach the celestial hall. Celestial hall is a sacred topographic point that carry out ceremonial related to to the sky or Eden. For the Chinese courtyard house, chief room was located at the deepest terminal of the house whereas the a mah s suites are placed at the. Yan ZhenQing museum besides apply the same rule by puting the artefacts at the last patio of marquees to tag it as the most of import topographic point in the museum. Ancient Chinese urban planning besides planned in a grid brass and use same spacial planning. Imperial castle was placed at the in-between terminal of the metropolis and surrounded with the citizen with the separation of streets.In Yan ZhenQing museum, colonnade act as the thres take to that connect the marquees and the gardens. In traditional bookman s garden, marquees besides joint with colonnade to move as a threshold to link a infinite to another(prenominal) new infinite. The planning of the museum has adopted many local traditional civilization into the architecture.2.3 TheoryCritical regionalism provides architecture that meet the footings with modern and tradition. Chinese architecture has strong influenced by local finish particularly when planing museum. From the overview of Y an ZhenQing museum, particularly from the program of the undertaking, the construct of the museum someway similar to the traditional Chinese courtyard house. handed-down Chinese courtyard house had a front courtyard before come ining the secondary gate and a chief courtyard located in the center of the house to move as public infinite for the large unit. The courtyard becomes a infinite that nexus and keep the secondary infinites together as a whole construction. Yan ZhenQing museum has several courtyard gardens to emphasize the construct of local civilization. The courtyard gardens are set in between the marquees to work as public infinite for the visitants. The traditional courtyard house was walled to hold privateness and security intent. Yan ZhenQing Museum besides framed up by the long colonnades to give a overt boundary to the site.Yan ZhenQing Museum is nestled among the hills distant off from the pandemonium of turning cities. In sing the harmonious of nature, the museum was designed in straightforward signifier to keep a cloistered quality, to intermix with the environing landscape. The marquees are rise somewhat following the terrain to do it look likes a portion of the landscape, set on the same plane with the terrain. The edifice ever has a clear boundary that lifts the edifice from the landscape to handle the edifice as a landscape and the feeling of walking along a garden way. Traditional monastery and garden besides nested far off from the bustle metropolis to accomplish a healing and brooding topographic point.Yan ZhenQing Museum besides has a great influence by modern architecture manner. The construct of the museum besides accent on the perpendicular and horizontal elements. The long colonnades that framed the marquees show a series of horizontal boxes from the program position. The smart form of the marquees has a really straightforward with its stuffs used with 90 grade at each borders. The marquees merely raiment with ceramic tiles to convey out simpleness of the edifice that coherent with the echt aggregations of Yan ZhenQing calligraphic book which displayed in the marquees. Other than that, the intent of merely utilizing one stuff is to stand out the exhibit work instead than overpowering the infinite by the architecture.The frontages pattern mimicked the bold perpendicular shot of calligraphic book, and the roof line of the marquees and colonnades accent on light horizontal elements to equilibrate the nature. The frontage of the marquees are really simple and clear with its borders. Modern architecture stress on the simpleness of signifiers and extinguish unneeded item on the edifice.The compound of signifiers into beautiful wholes is one definition of architecture. ( Colin Davies,2011 ) . The museum was called as a whole constructing merely with including the courtyards and colonnades. The plans of the museum was collected by courtyards and colonnades. Visitors will travel through these courtyards both hor izontally and vertically. The response and stores of the museum are located at the lowest patio, and the visitants will travel up to a patio with instruction and public installations, and make the exhibitions at the top degree. The colonnades get along as the chief circulation of the edifice and besides as a threshold for each marquees. When the visitants move along the colonnades, it show the horizontal circulation whereas when the visitants move from courtyard to courtyard, it is foregrounding on perpendicular motion.In another position, the museum is stony-broke down into several blocks and arrange on different axes instead than a individual block like general museum. The gardens are enclosed within the asymmetrical infinites between the extraneous marquees, the program of the museum show the deconstructivism architecture. The calve agreement leting the nature to contrast with architecture. The architecture of the museum is to show its withdrawal in the landscape and bordering the nature as a mention point on the site. The interior exhibition infinites besides divided into smaller extraneous infinites. When the marquees are shifted at different angle, the visitants come ining a new marquee from another marquee will experience new to the infinite as it is non a common agreement like the old one. intimately of the exhibition suites are designed with high ceiling with fanlight, lit up the room with soft natural sunshine. The place of the interior sunshine beams besides varies. The in-between marquee has a brighter room if comparison to the another two next marquees. The fanlight of the in-between marquees are confronting straight to the eventide Sun. The design purpose is to offer the visitant a more broad screening of the work displayed with different angle of natural visible radiations and shadows. The overall scene of the marquees create a more poetic ambiance to the museum by deconstructivism architecture.3.0 DISCUSSION AND demonstrationThe purpose of this paper is to analyse the factors that affect the architecture of Yan ZhenQing Museum. The clime of the site affects the design of the edifice in footings of edifice orientation and fenestration. Sunlight is the most critical impact that impacting the design of the edifice. Skylights are used alternatively of window due to the protection of the aggregations in the marquees. The museum in China might portion the same features with other edifice, but architect demands to understand the civilization of the local context, and use the construct suitably with grounds. Christopher Lee says, That is, you take the most common and do them special.

Sunday, May 19, 2019

Public accountability Essay

Do you support that state-supported righteousness an erosion under the current mode of governance and market-oriented betters? Why or why non? Elaborate your answer with examples on operationalization of prevalent grievanceability in the current context. There ar heterogeneous honourable problems that have faced civil servants in their daily work such as the clog of having to meet the requirements of the Government and citizens at the same time distinguish between discretionary and arbitrary the enticement of using the position as a function of their own benefits the asymmetry between the presidentship and the citizens the prodigal bureaucracy and the lack of transparence, among otherwises. Hence the need to create a environment where it be represent much enhancer paying continuous attention to building a righteous human behaviour because general duty is a continuous act, not an ideal state to be get hold ofd. Consequently, duty is vital because its central them e the idea of service and at that placefore is a key factor to improve the come out of usual administration finished the honest, efficient, objective and upright conduct of officials in management of unrestricted affairs. The transparentness carries with it elements that citizens share, regardless of their religious beliefs, their family relationships, their profession, theircraft common elements which help devoteing to live in harmony consort to principles of justice, freedom, equality and solidarity in order to make human relations much than satisfying. When the transparency is applied and employ in the public service is called Public Liability, alike called accountability. The idea that accountability is linked to run the society as an active part of the state in which the information is flowing both upwards and downwards and thus be able make real use of sociable control.It is clear that, transparency and accountability obtain characteristic and distinctive gover nance aspects by themselves in public administration, however they excessively become markers of socially responsible behaviour with other aspects, this is why it is outstanding not to considered transparency and accountability synonyms as social responsibility, since the previous ones are an expression of a specific aspect of the management process and decision-making of an formation (the evaluation and control for example), whereas the social responsibility should embrace and transcend all phases and activities of the management of an organization. In the present times, there is an increasing conviction that accountability is an important activity for organizations to develop confidence and authenticity with other social actors, which relates within their own field. This belief has several origin some of them are conceptual, because accountability is part of a framework of values that play on the notion of nation. Accountability is as well as associated with the necessary tra nsparency in which public services mustiness perform towards the citizens, particularly to the access of information, still it also to the results achieved by public institutions in the fulfilment of their mission, consequently, the creation of institutional mechanisms to control and social supervision as an institutionalize design related to the democratic accountability of public management implies the existence of political and administrative systems with a high degree of political legitimacy and administrative efficiency.However, the action of accountability is not effective by itself. If there is no an active and vigilant civil society to be vigilant and report anything mistaken behaviour, which is why the public services should promote engagement and citizen control reducing the follows of such activity by strengthening citizen union in the procedures for the development of dispositions of general character, expanding the participation of representatives from civil soci ety on management boards oforganizations and public agencies, to effectively ensure accessing to the records and public archives by concerned citizens, open to the public meetings for public decision making, boost customer surveys of public services, developing systems such as random survival of the fittest of citizens to participate in discussions on specific procedures. Accountability does not only relate to control, to motivate and to convince, solely is a concept related to better management and guidance for organizations. Accountability can be use for to manage, to guide and control more effectively the institution. The incorporation of the accountability model where the regimen receives a command to perform a range of occupations by the society, and therefore the Government becomes accountable to the society for this task, the government held to account to society for the task that was entrusted. This accountability model includes two directions that are accountable for ho rizontal and vertical. The horizontal axis is related to a system in which the power is divided and balanced with a set of checks and balances, in which the law and a variety of public Institutions are included. Meanwhile, the vertical axis is related to the public scene and election mechanisms, through which the citizens can approve or disapprove an officer through the ballot. In order to achieve a state that is capable of responding to the challenges and requirements from civil society, it is necessary besides the modernization of public administration, the design of the state to enable it to respond with the levels of relevance, quality and specialty expected from the civil society through public policy. This is why it is necessary further democratic elucidates of the State which allows citizens to participate actively in the public administration and in the selection, formulation and implementation of the public policies.However probably one of the most important and chall enge obstacles to be overcome in public management in Latin America, to respond efficiently and by the way basis to the current and future requirements from civil society and the private sector, is related to the resistance to change that many public services have to modernizing processes and big changes sometimes affect the processes of governance, especially in regards to the public participation in the actions of the State from both, public services and in its policies and programs. Accountability in this region is almost inexistent. On the one hand, there is no favourable framework conditions, laws, governmentregulations and culture they are not accustomed to this practice, moreover, in organizational terms, dimensions such as size, seniority and / or centralization, are critical to define the area of possible actions. The concept of accountability systems has proven to be very plastic. It could be understood as a range of ideas ranging from the mere access to information, t he effective responsibility in the performance of a task, in terms of effectiveness and values it can also include the time of coercitivity or obligation both legitimately and morally, and they may empower different public to access information, to be capable to exercise assessments or to contain sanctions. If accountability is taken merely as a monitoring mechanism it could help to avoid misbehaviour, but its greatest potential can be accomplished when it is viewed as a tool to improve the skills of public institutions and moral resources to make the good. The strategic time of accountability implies that the organization is aware that it needs the trust of their audiences, legitimacy from other entities and most of all the loyalty of its employees.Since the year 2000, in Latin America have been expressing a need for modernization and rationalization of the governments, developing in particular the new-fashioned Public Management approach, which consists of replacing the bureau cracy with a flexible, efficient management, goal-oriented and concerned about the results and where all of those management techniques that allow to define objectives, determine responsibilities, control costs, and establishing indicators are important to measure outcomes, such the implementation and use of more suitable methodologies for accountability. This has shape the called Public Administration Accountability to taxpayers, which is founded on the Value for Money which relies on three concepts Economy, Effectiveness and Efficiency, which must be considered holistically and not on an individual basis, where economy is referred to the relationship between the market and the inputs or supplies through the prices of these, where efficiency is the ratio between the product obtained and the desired objectives, including the criteria for the Quality and Service Access are included, aptitude may include Excellence and Equity as well, and finally Efficiency is the relationship betwe en inputs and outputs that is the cost per unit of service. There is an school of thought, the Guideline to the Public Service, which considers not only the important issue of the effectiveness of theGovernment, but it also maintains that the fundamental challenge is to address the democratic deficit of the current bureaucracies, which focuses strictly in Governance. There isnt a shortage of ideas and concrete proposals to improve transparency, accountability and political responsibility, and thereby to achieve authentic accountable governments. The major(ip)ity of these proposals agree on the essential governmental activities should be made more open for the citizens and they should audit them more diligently, demanding specific liabilities to government officials, whether this are elected, appointed, or career officers. It is may be necessary go even further and restore the essence of the same political institutions, so that the transparency and accountability should become effect ive at all levels and areas of public administration in the region.Therefore, is desirable and also necessary to strengthen the accountability of elected officers with respect to their constituencies as well as to give more effective participation of citizens in decision-making. That is to say, to ensure that the government-at all levels and areas-are truly accountable to the citizens. This requires progress towards a democratic democracy that complements the existing representative democracy, as noted at times it becomes merely delegative.It is possible that the examples of reforms that are proposed below may contribute not only to strengthening the culture of transparency and accountability, but also the quality and on the same the performance of Latin American democracies for the latter, it is also possible that this type of reform to raise public trust in the democratic institutions. It is possible that in the example of reforms such as the one which is proposed below contribut e not only to strengthening the culture of transparency and accountability, but also the quality and on the same the performance of Latin American democracies for the latter, it is also possible that this type of reform to raise public trust in the democratic institutions. Semi-direct democracy The mechanisms are counted in a salient(ip) place, the revocation of mandate, the referendum or plebiscite and popular initiative. The adoption of mechanisms of semi-direct democracy is a way to strengthen vertical accountability in other words to the citizens from all the elected public servants. The popular revoking the mandates may constitute animportant element in favour of responsible government. For example, if an elected municipal officer or a legislator is not carrying out in an appropriate manner the a task for which he was elected, that is, if it does not render copesetic accounts to their constituents, a group of these could be organized to demand the convening of a consultation i n the correspondent voters decide whether the official or legislator continues in office or not.If the semi-direct democracy is implemented, the more power is grant to sub-national governments and citizen participation spaces significantly are extended it might make more accountable governments and bring government closer and the civil service to the sovereign, the people. It is true that the semi-direct democracy mechanisms can be defeated, be emptied of contents and worthy plebiscitarian forms of government. However, in a democratic and participative vein, it seems preferable that the citizens can revoke mandates and propose, approve or deny major initiatives, rather than leaving all this in the exclusive hands of the lawmakers or the executive. In conclusion, what is proposed in the replete(p) mode of governance in favour of accountability is that citizens become more active, direct and effective in the monitoring and the conduction of public affairs part. Since the world of politics is not angelical. It is an illusion to think that there impart be accountable and effective, clean and open government, if citizens do not demand it. There will be no participatory democracy if we do not participate. Therefore, in the final and decisive stage, the task of demanding transparency, accountability and political responsibility, it is up to us the people to avoid any kind of erosions in the democracy system or governance.Ahrens, T. (1996). 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